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野並 浩ノナミ ヒロシ

所属部署
大学院農学研究科 食料生産学専攻
職名教授
メールアドレスnonami.hiroshi.me[at]ehime-u.ac.jp ※[at]を@に書き換えて送信して下さい
ホームページURLhttp://web.agr.ehime-u.ac.jp/~pbb/
生年月日
Last Updated :2017/08/18

研究者基本情報

学歴

  •  - 1980年, 九州大学, 農学研究科, 生物環境調節学
  •  - 1986年, イリノイ大学, 生物科学研究科, 植物科学
  •  - 1978年, 九州大学, 農学部, 農学科

経歴

  •   2006年,  - 2014年,  日本学術会議
  •   2001年,  東京農工大学農学部
  •   2000年,  東京農工大学農学部
  •   2000年,  - 2001年,  九州大学大学院生物資源環境科学府
  •   1999年,  - 2000年,  東京農工大学農学部
  •   1998年,  東京大学大学院農学生命科学研究科
  •   1997年, - 愛媛大学大学院連合農学研究科
  •   1996年, - 愛媛大学農学部
  •   1992年,  - 1997年,  愛媛大学大学院連合農学研究科
  •   1989年, - 愛媛大学大学院農学研究科(修士課程)
  •   1988年,  - 1996年,  愛媛大学農学部
  •   1987年,  - 1988年,  米国デラウエアー大学海洋科学部
  •   1987年,  米国テキサス農工大学土壌作物学部
  •   1986年,  西ドイツバイロイト大学植物生態学研究室
  •   1981年,  - 1986年,  米国イリノイ大学大学院植物科学部

所属学協会

  • 日本生物環境調節学会
  • 日本植物工場学会
  • 米国植物生理学会(American Society of Plant Biologists)
  • 日本植物生理学会
  • 米国園芸学会(American Society for Horticultunal Science)
  • 園芸学会
  • 日本作物学会
  • 日本質量分析学会
  • 米国質量分析学会(American Society for Mass Spectrometry)
  • 日本生物環境工学会

委員歴

  •   1989年 - 2006年, 日本生物環境調節学会, 理事
  •   2003年 - 2006年, 日本生物環境調節学会, 編集委員長
  •   2007年 - 2010年, 日本生物環境工学会, 生物生体計測部会長
  •   2011年, 日本生物環境工学会, 英文誌 編集長
  •   2011年, 日本生物環境工学会, 副会長 (編集担当)

研究活動情報

研究キーワード

    植物水分生理学, 作物学, 園芸学, 質量分析(MALDI, ESI)

MISC

  • Desorption of low-volatility compounds induced by dynamic friction between microdroplets and an ultrasonically vibrating blade
    D. T. Usmanov, D. T. Usmanov, K. Hiraoka, H. Wada, S. Morita, H. Nonami, Analyst, 141,   2016年02月21日, © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016. Friction plays an important role in desorption and/or ionization of nonvolatile compounds in mass spectrometry, e.g., sonic spray, easy ambient sonic-spray ionization, solvent-assisted inlet ionization, desorption electrospray, etc. In our previous work, desorption of low molecular weight compounds induced by solid/solid dynamic friction was studied. The objective of this work was to investigate desorption of low-volatility compounds induced by liquid/solid friction. Water/methanol (1/1) microdroplets with ∼30 μm in diameter were generated by using a piezoelectric microdroplet generator. They were injected to analytes deposited on the flat surface of a blade vibrating ultrasonically with the frequency of 40 kHz. Neutral molecules desorbed from the blade were ionized by a helium dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), generating strong signals for samples including drugs, explosives, and insecticides. These signals were not detected when either the blade vibrator or the piezoelectric microdroplet generator was off. In contrast, for ionic compounds such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoro-methylsulfonyl)imide, p-chlorobenzyl pyridinium chloride, and rhodamine B, strong ion signals were obtained when the vibrator and droplet generator were on, but DBD was off. Sub-nanogram limits of detection were attained for low-volatility compounds.
  • Electrospray droplet impact secondary ion mass spectrometry using a vacuum electrospray source
    R. Takaishi, Y. Sakai, K. Hiraoka, H. Wada, S. Morita, T. Nakashima, H. Nonami, Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 29,   2015年08月15日, Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Rationale In electrospray droplet impact (EDI) developed in our laboratory, an atmospheric pressure electrospray source has been used. To increase the ion beam intensity and reduce the evacuation load, a vacuum electrospray cluster ion source using a silica capillary was developed. Methods A silica capillary with a tip inner diameter of 8 μm was used for vacuum electrospray using aqueous 10% methanol. To stabilize the flow rate of the liquid for nano-electrospray, a home-made constant pressure liquid pump was also developed. Results By using the silica tip nano-electrospray emitter and a constant pressure pump, stable electrospray with flow rate of 22 nL/min was realized without using any heating system such as laser irradiation. Comparative study of mass spectra obtained by atmospheric pressure EDI (A-EDI) and vacuum EDI (V-EDI) was made for various samples such as thermometer molecule, peptide, polystyrene, Alq3, NPD, C60, indium, and SiO2. V-EDI showed slightly milder ionization than A-EDI. Conclusions Because V-EDI gave higher target current (5-10 nA) than A-EDI (a few nA at most), V-EDI secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) would be a useful technique for the surface and interface analysis.
  • In situ analysis of soybeans and nuts by probe electrospray ionization mass spectrometry
    Gabriela Petroselli, Mridul K. Mandal, Lee C. Chen, Kenzo Hiraoka, Hiroshi Nonami, Rosa Erra-Balsells, Journal of Mass Spectrometry, 50,   2015年04月01日, Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The probe electrospray ionization (PESI) is an ESI-based ionization technique that generates electrospray from the tip of a solid metal needle. In the present work, we describe the PESI mass spectra obtained by in situ measurement of soybeans and several nuts (peanuts, walnuts, cashew nuts, macadamia nuts and almonds) using different solid needles as sampling probes. It was found that PESI-MS is a valuable approach for in situ lipid analysis of these seeds. The phospholipid and triacylglycerol PESI spectra of different nuts and soybean were compared by principal component analysis (PCA). PCA shows significant differences among the data of each family of seeds. Methanolic extracts of nuts and soybean were exposed to air and sunlight for several days. PESI mass spectra were recorded before and after the treatment. Along the aging of the oil (rancidification), the formation of oxidated species with variable number of hydroperoxide groups could be observed in the PESI spectra. The relative intensity of oxidated triacylglycerols signals increased with days of exposition. Monitoring sensitivity of PESI-MS was high. This method provides a fast, simple and sensitive technique for the analysis (detection and characterization) of lipids in seed tissue and degree of oxidation of the oil samples.
  • Electrospray droplet impact/secondary ion mass spectrometry (EDI/SIMS) using NaF and AgF as cationization matrices
    R. Takaishi, K. Hiraoka, H. Wada, S. Morita, T. Nakashima, H. Nonami, Surface and Interface Analysis, 47,   2015年01月01日, Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. In our previous paper, it was suggested that metal fluorides may be useful as cationization matrices in Electrospray droplet impact/SIMS. In this work, NaF and AgF were used as the cationization matrices for cyclodextrin (CD), polyethylene glycol (PEG), polystyrene (PS), garlic juice, and sliced raw rice. EDI mass spectra were measured without and with the use of matrices. Enhancement of ion abundances of [M+Na]+ for CD and PEG with NaF matrix and that of [M+Ag]+ for PS with AgF matrix were observed. However, the addition of matrices was not effective for the cationization of garlic juice and sliced raw rice samples. This may be due to the Coulombic repulsion of the reagent ions of Na+ or Ag+ with the preformed K+ adducts of oligosaccharides already present in the samples.
  • Nanoparticles applied to mass spectrometry metabolomics and pesticide residue analysis
    Yousef Gholipour, Yousef Gholipour, Rosa Erra-Balsells, Hiroshi Nonami, Nanotechnology and Plant Sciences: Nanoparticles and Their Impact on Plants,   2015年01月01日, © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. In this chapter, we review the achievements in application of nanoparticles and nanotubes to mass spectrometry metabolomics of plants. Ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (UV-MALDI-MS) using nanoparticles as the matrices enables biologists to directly analyze metabolite composition of plant tissues. In addition, due to its high sensitivity and low limit of detection, it is applied to plant single-cell analysis for metabolite profiling of pico- to nanoliter of cell microsample with metabolite concentration of femto- to picomolar. In addition to the detection, the technique provides quantitative information of metabolite composition of plant single cells. Another interesting feature of nanoparticle UV-MADI-MS is its applicability to direct analysis of pesticide residues on agricultural products. The technique has been able to detect main component and degradation products of commercial pesticides sprayed on plants in a greenhouse.
  • Hydraulic conductance in tepal growth and extension of vase life with trehalose in cut tulip flowers
    Hiroshi Wada, Mari Iwaya-Inoue, Mitsuru Akita, Hiroshi Nonami, American Society of Horticultural ScienceJournal of American Society of Horticultural Science, 130, (2) 275 - 286,   2005年03月01日, Two cultivars of tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L.) were used to check the effect of trehalose-feeding on longevity of vase life. 'Oxford' plants were grown from bulbs, and trehalose-fed cut flowers were compared with the intact plants grown in pots. 'Pink Diamond' flowers were obtained commercially as cut flowers from the market, and trehalose-feeding was examined by using only flower parts. In both cultivars of plants, it was confirmed that trehalose-feeding enhanced longevity of the vase life significantly at room temperature. Additionally, mechanisms of prolonging the vase life with trehalose-fed flowers were studied by comparing the water states in the zone of elongation of tulip tepals when their growth rates were modified with different treatments. In the elongating region of tulip tepals, cell elongation rates were linearly correlated to sizes of the growth-induced water potential regardless of treatments. It was found that trehalose-feeding reduced the hydraulic conductance, resulting in a decrease in cell elongation rates. Also, trehalose helped to maintain turgor of tepal cells for longer periods. Furthermore, trehalose enhanced pigmentation in tepals, and thus, trehalose is believed to have had a role in altering the metabolism in elongating cells and in reducing hydraulic conductivity in membranes.
  • Rice chalky ring formation caused by temporal reduction in starch biosynthesis during osmotic adjustment under Foehn-induced dry wind
    Hiroshi Wada, Chisato Masumoto-Kubo, Yousef Gholipour, Hiroshi Nonami, Fukuyo Tanaka, Rosa Erra-Balsells, Koichi Tsutsumi, Kenzo Hiraoka, Satoshi Morita, PLoS ONE, 9,   2014年10月20日, © 2014 Wada et al. Foehn-like extreme hot and dry wind conditions (34 °C, >2.5 kPa vapor pressure deficit, and 7 m s-1) strongly affect grain quality in rice (Oryza sativa L.). This is a current concern because of the increasing frequency and intensity of combined heat and water-deficit stress under climate change. Foehn-induced dry wind conditions during the grain-filling stage increase ring-shaped chalkiness as a result of spatiotemporal reduction in starch accumulation in the endosperm, but kernel growth is sometimes maintained by osmotic adjustment. Here, we assess the effects of dry wind on chalky ring formation in environmentally controlled growth chambers. Our results showed that hot and dry wind conditions that lasted for > 24 h dramatically increased chalky ring formation. Hot and dry wind conditions temporarily reduced panicle water potential to - 0.65 MPa; however, kernel growth was maintained by osmotic adjustment at control levels with increased transport of assimilate to the growing kernels. Dynamic tracer analysis with a nano-electrospray-ionization Orbitrap mass spectrometer and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that starch degradation was negligible in the short-term treatment. Overall expression of starch synthesis-related genes was found to be down-regulated at moderately low water potential. Because the events observed at low water potential preceded the packing of starch granules in cells, we concluded that reduced rates of starch biosynthesis play a central role in the events of cellular metabolism that are altered at osmotic adjustment, which leads to chalky ring formation under short-term hot and dry wind conditions. Copyright:
  • Glycosphingolipids in Plasmodium falciparum. Presence of an active glucosylceramide synthase.
    COUTO A S, CAFFARO C, UHRIG M L, KIMURA E, PERES V J, MERINO E F, NISHIOKA M, NONAMI H, ERRA‐BALSELLS R, Federation of European Biochemical SocietiesEuropean Journal of Biochemistry, 271, (11) 2204 - 2214,   2004年06月01日, Malaria remains a major health problem especially in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, and therefore developing new antimalarial drugs constitutes an urgent challenge. Lipid metabolism has been attracting a lot of attention as an application for malarial chemotherapeutic purposes in recent years. However, little is known about glycosphingolipid biosynthesis in Plasmodium falciparum. In this report we describe for the first time the presence of an active glucosylceramide synthase in the intraerythrocytic stages of the parasite. Two different experiments, using UDP-[14C]glucose as donor with ceramides as acceptors, or UDP-glucose as donor and fluorescent ceramides as acceptors, were performed. In both cases, we found that the parasitic enzyme was able to glycosylate only dihydroceramide. The enzyme activity could be inhibited in vitro with low concentrations of D,L-threo-phenyl-2-palmitoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol (PPMP). In addition, de novo biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids was shown by metabolic incorporation of [14C]palmitic acid and [14C]glucose in the three intraerythrocytic stages of the parasite. The structure of the ceramide, monohexosylceramide, trihexosylceramide and tetrahexosylceramide fractions was analysed by UV-MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. When PPMP was added to parasite cultures, a correlation between arrest of parasite growth and inhibition of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis was observed. The particular substrate specificity of the malarial glucosylceramide synthase must be added to the already known unique and amazing features of P. falciparum lipid metabolism; therefore this enzyme might represent a new attractive target for malarial chemotherapy.
  • Direct analysis of anabolic steroids in urine using Leidenfrost phenomenon assisted thermal desorption-dielectric barrier discharge ionization mass spectrometry
    Subhrakanti Saha, Subhrakanti Saha, Mridul Kanti Mandal, Mridul Kanti Mandal, Hiroshi Nonami, Kenzo Hiraoka, Analytica Chimica Acta, 839,   2014年08月11日, Rapid detection of trace level anabolic steroids in urine is highly desirable to monitor the consumption of performance enhancing anabolic steroids by athletes. The present article describes a novel strategy for identifying the trace anabolic steroids in urine using Leidenfrost phenomenon assisted thermal desorption (LPTD) coupled to dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) ionization mass spectrometry. Using this method the steroid molecules are enriched within a liquid droplet during the thermal desorption process and desorbed all-together at the last moment of droplet evaporation in a short time domain. The desorbed molecules were ionized using a dielectric barrier discharge ion-source in front of the mass spectrometer inlet at open atmosphere. This process facilitates the sensitivity enhancement with several orders of magnitude compared to the thermal desorption at a lower temperature. The limits of detection (LODs) of various steroid molecules were found to be in the range of 0.05-0.1ngmL-1 for standard solutions and around two orders of magnitude higher for synthetic urine samples. The detection limits of urinary anabolic steroids could be lowered by using a simple and rapid dichloromethane extraction technique. The analytical figures of merit of this technique were evaluated at open atmosphere using suitable internal standards. The technique is simple and rapid for high sensitivity and high throughput screening of anabolic steroids in urine. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
  • Epoxy Networks Modified by a New Class of Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes Bearing Multiple Intramolecular Rings Formed through Si–O–C Bonds.
    Ignacio E. Dell'Erba, Diana P. Fasce, Roberto J J Williams, Rosa Erra-Balsells, Yuko Fukuyama, Hiroshi Nonami, WileyMacromolecular Materials and Engineering, 289,   2004年04月19日, A new class of silsesquioxane (SSO), containing species with two to nine Si atoms bearing multiple intramolecular rings formed through Si-O-C bonds, was synthesized as a glassy powder. It was characterized by UV-MALDI-TOF MS, 29Si NMR and FT IR. Solutions containing different amounts of SSO in the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA), were homopolymerized in the presence of (4-dimethylamino)pyridine (DMAP) as initiator, leading to SSO-modified epoxy networks. SSO species were covalently bonded to the epoxy network without any evidence of phase separation. The SSO addition provoked an increase in the elastic modulus in the glassy state explained by an increase in the cohesive energy density. The SSO addition gave also place to an increase in the intensity of tan δ and a decrease in both the glass transition temperature and the elastic modulus in the rubbery state. This was explained by a decrease in crosslink density associated with the flexibility of SSO structures. DMAP was much more effective than other usual initiators (like benzyldimethylamine, BDMA), in increasing the crosslink density of the resulting epoxy network. This led to high values of the glass transition temperature and the elastic modulus in the rubbery state.
  • Piezoelectric inkjet assisted rapid electrospray ionization mass spectrometric analysis of metabolites in plant single cells via a direct sampling probe
    Zhan Yu, Lee Chuin Chen, Satoshi Ninomiya, Mridul Kanti Mandal, Kenzo Hiraoka, Hiroshi Nonami, Analyst, 139,   2014年01月01日, © the Partner Organisations 2014. Direct sampling probe mass spectrometry (DSP-MS) enables fast and direct profiling of metabolites in biological samples. However, because the solvent amount for the online dissolution of acquired analytes is difficult to control, the detection sensitivity is not satisfactory. In this study, we present a modified version of the DSP-MS system for direct mass spectrometric profiling of metabolites in plant single cells. Two major improvements are introduced in this work, including a pointed-tip probe with high surface wetting properties, which is ten times finer than the previous version, and a piezoelectric inkjet system working as the auxiliary solvent delivery means. The probe tip can be controlled to insert into a cell through the cell wall. Metabolites loaded on the tip surface can be extracted by the auxiliary solvent and electrosprayed after applying a high direct current voltage. The unique features such as low cost, disposability and versatility make this technique a competitive tool for single cell analysis.
  • Hydraulic properties in tissue-cultured soybean roots are affected by salt, sugar and heavy metals
    Takashi Ikeda, Hiroshi Nonami, Environmental Control in Biology, 51,   2013年12月01日, This work was undertaken to estimate the hydraulic properties of roots of tissue-cultured soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) subject to stress gradients from varying concentrations of nutrient salts, sugar, and heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Mn, Hg) in the culture solution. Using the paper wick method, we varied the water potential of the culture media from -0.04 to -1.45 MPa. Growth was inhibited as increasing concentration of salt or sucrose, and zinc, copper, manganese and mercury in the culture solution, and the root growth was associated with the magnitude of the growth-induced water potential and hydraulic conductance, although the degree of inhibition at a given concentration differed among individual heavy metal ions. In the zone of elongation, turgor was kept larger than 0.3 MPa under all stress conditions, and thus, the cell volume was kept almost unchanged, indicating that osmotic adjustment was occurring according to rates of water inflow associated with cell expansion.
  • Development of sheath-flow probe electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and its application to real time pesticide analysis
    Mridul Kanti Mandal, Tomoyuki Ozawa, Subhrakanti Saha, Md Matiur Rahman, Mami Iwasa, Yasuo Shida, Hiroshi Nonami, Kenzo Hiraoka, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61,   2013年08月21日, For the real time and direct analysis of chemical constituents from living beings and dry sample, sheath-flow probe electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (SF-PESI-MS) has been newly developed. The components from dry or semidry biological tissues can be extracted using the solvent and picked up by the needle for electrospray. This technique was applied to real-time pesticide analysis of living plants. The results have been validated with that of a well-known system, liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry (LESA-MS). It is demonstrated that SF-PESI-MS can produce reasonable ionization efficiency, which is confirmed by LESA-MS. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
  • Development of sheath-flow probe electrospray ionization (SF-PESI)
    Md Obaidur Rahman, Mridul Kanti Mandal, Yasuo Shida, Satoshi Ninomiya, Lee Chuin Chen, Hiroshi Nonami, Kenzo Hiraoka, Journal of Mass Spectrometry, 48,   2013年07月01日, Probe electrospray ionization (PESI) uses a sharp solid needle as electrospray emitter. This method was found to be applicable to the analysis of real-world samples with high concentrations of salts and detergents without sample pretreatment. Since PESI is only applicable to wet samples but not to dry samples, sheath-flow PESI (SF-PESI) has been developed. The metal needle was inserted into the fine plastic capillary with a protrusion of 0.1-0.2 mm from the capillary terminus. The solvent was supplied continuously through the capillary. At the lowest position of the probe, solvent flowing out from the capillary makes the sample wet and extracts the analytes from the surface. The extracted analytes were electrosprayed at the highest position of the needle. SF-PESI was successfully applied to samples such as narcotics, tablets, bill, fruits, potatoes, etc. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Biomolecular analysis and cancer diagnostics by negative mode probe electrospray ionization
    Mridul Kanti Mandal, Subhrakanti Saha, Kentaro Yoshimura, Yasuo Shida, Sen Takeda, Hiroshi Nonami, Kenzo Hiraoka, Analyst, 138,   2013年03月21日, We have examined several combinations of solvents and probes with the aim of optimizing the ionization conditions for biomolecules e.g., proteins, peptides and lipids by negative mode probe electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PESI-MS). With the data presented in this study, negative-mode PESI-MS can be considered as a potential tool for biomolecular analysis and cancer diagnostics because of its simplicity in instrumental configuration. A sharper sampling probe was found to be better for obtaining high quality mass spectra because it can generate stable electrospray without the occurrence of gas breakdown. Although the best conditions may depend on each sample, aqueous organic solvent solutions, especially isopropanol-H2O (1/1) with a pH of ≥7, are shown to be preferable for negative-mode PESI-MS, which was successfully applied to colon cancer diagnosis. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.
  • Living cell manipulation, manageable sampling, and shotgun picoliter electrospray mass spectrometry for profiling metabolites
    Yousef Gholipour, Rosa Erra-Balsells, Kenzo Hiraoka, Hiroshi Nonami, Analytical Biochemistry, 433,   2013年02月01日, A modified cell pressure probe and an online Orbitrap mass spectrometer were used to sample in situ plant single cells without any additional manipulation. The cell pressure probe, a quartz capillary tip filled with an oil mixture, was penetrated to various depths into parenchyma cells of tulip bulb scale, followed by a hydraulic continuity test to determine the exact location of the tip inside target cells. The operation was conducted under a digital microscope, and the capillary tip was photographed to calculate the volume of the cell sap sucked. The cell sap sample was then directly nebulized/ionized under high-voltage conditions at the entrance of the mass spectrometer. Several sugars, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, fatty acids, and secondary metabolites were detected. Because picoliter solutions can be accurately handled and measured, known volumes of standard solutions can be added to cell sap samples inside the capillary tip to be used as references for metabolite characterization and relative quantitation. The high precision and sensitivity of the cell pressure probe and Orbitrap mass spectrometer allow for the manipulation and analysis of both femtoliter cell sap samples and standard solutions. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Photosensitized electron transfer within a self-assembled norharmane-2′-deoxyadenosine 5′-monophosphate (dAMP) complex
    M. Micaela Gonzalez, Federico A O Rasse-Suriani, Carlos A. Franca, Reinaldo Pis Diez, Yousef Gholipour, Hiroshi Nonami, Rosa Erra-Balsells, Franco M. Cabrerizo, Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 10,   2012年12月21日, Norharmane is a compound that belongs to a family of alkaloids called β-carbolines (βCs). These alkaloids are present in a wide range of biological systems, playing a variety of significant photo-dependent roles. Upon UV-A irradiation, βCs are able to act as efficient photosensitizers. In this work, we have investigated the photosensitized oxidation of 2′-deoxyadenosine 5′-monophosphate (dAMP) by norharmane in an aqueous phase, upon UV-A (350 nm) irradiation. The effect of the pH was evaluated on both the interactions between norharmane and dAMP in the ground and electronic excited states, and on the dAMP photosensitized oxidation. A quite strong static interaction between norharmane and dAMP was observed, especially under those pH conditions where the protonated form of the alkaloid is present (pH < 7). Theoretical studies were performed to further characterize the static complex structure. The participation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the photosensitized reaction was also investigated and the photoproducts were characterized by means of UV-LDI-MS and ESI-MS. All the data provided herein indicate that electron transfer (Type I) within a self-assembled norharmane-dAMP complex is the operative mechanism in the dAMP photosensitization. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
  • Integrative analysis of physiological phenotype of plant cells byturgor measurement and metabolomics
    Y. Gholipour, R. Erra-Balsells, H. Nonami, Engineering Letters, 20,   2012年11月21日, Water status and metabolite content are considered as two key features in plant cell physiological phenotype. In order to profiling in situ living plant cell status, turgor pressure of cells located at different locations of tissues was probed with a cell pressure probe and then cell sap was sampled and its metabolite profile was generated with using nanoESI and MALDI mass spectrometry. No purification or separation was included in workflow and picoliter cell sap samples were injected directly into a nanoESI-Orbitrap mass spectrometer and/or deposited on selected matrices from organic compounds and nanoparticles for MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis. Both shotgun mass spectrometry techniques could be used for detecting and quantifying metabolites in single-cell samples. Different metabolites from neutral carbohydrates to amino acids and secondary metabolites could be detected. Quantity of two major metabolites, sucrose and kestose, was also measured in several cells and sucrose concentration was co-plotted with turgor data.
  • Growth promotion with osmotic adjustment at low water potentials after H2O2 pretreatment in soybean seeds
    Eman F A Awad-Allah, Yousef Gholipour, Hiroshi Nonami, Hiroshi Nonami, Environmental Control in Biology, 50,   2012年11月20日, Pretreatment of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seeds with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) promoted their growth rates at low water potentials. Seeds were pretreated with H2O2 and sowed in vermiculite medium with water potential of - 0.02 MPa (as the control with adequate water in vermiculite) and - 0.18 MPa (as the low amount of water in vermiculite). Among examined concentrations, 20 mM of H2O2 had the highest effects on the growth of seedlings at low water potential. Roots exhibited more elongation improvement than hypocotyls at low water potential. The osmotic adjustment was extremely promoted in seedlings with H2O2-pretreated in seeds in 50 h after sowing. The data indicate that such extreme osmotic adjustment was associated with a large size of the growth-induced water potential in roots and hypocotyls. Furthermore, water permeability in the zone of elongation was decreased in seedlings H 2O2-pretreated. At low water potential, seedlings with H2O2-pretreatment in seeds could import more solutes and water in cells in the zone of elongation while faster cell elongation went on by absorbing water from the low amount of water in vermiculite.
  • Application of probe electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PESI-MS) to clinical diagnosis: Solvent effect on lipid analysis
    Mridul Kanti Mandal, Kentaro Yoshimura, Lee Chuin Chen, Zhan Yu, Tadao Nakazawa, Ryohei Katoh, Hideki Fujii, Sen Takeda, Hiroshi Nonami, Kenzo Hiraoka, Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 23,   2012年11月01日, We have examined several combinations of solvents with the aim of optimizing the ionization conditions for molecular diagnosis of malignant tumours by PESI-MS. Although the best conditions may depend on the actual species in the sample, the optimal conditions for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) were achieved by using alcohols. PESI-MS successfully delineated the differential expression of phospholipids (PCs) and triacylglycerols (TAGs) in noncancerous and RCC tissues by using these solvent systems. This study paves the way for the application of PESI-MS in medical samples. © American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 2012.
  • Solid probe assisted nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry for biological tissue diagnostics
    Mridul Kanti Mandal, Kentaro Yoshimura, Subhrakanti Saha, Satoshi Ninomiya, Md Obaidur Rahman, Zhan Yu, Lee Chuin Chen, Yasuo Shida, Sen Takeda, Hiroshi Nonami, Kenzo Hiraoka, Analyst, 137,   2012年10月21日, To perform remote and direct sampling for mass spectrometry, solid probe assisted nanoelectrospray ionization (SPA-nanoESI) has been newly developed. After capturing the sample on the tip of the needle by sticking it to the biological tissue, the needle was inserted into the solvent-preloaded nanoESI capillary from the backside. NanoESI gave abundant ion signals for human kidney tissues and the liver of a living mouse. The method is easy to operate and versatile because any biological specimen could be sampled away from the mass spectrometer. Minimal invasiveness is another merit of this method. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
  • Detection of pesticides on tomato fruit surface by ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry
    Yousef Gholipour, Rosa Erra-Balsells, Hiroshi Nonami, Environmental Control in Biology, 50,   2012年09月25日, Small amounts of pesticides and their transformation products may exist on edible parts before harvesting tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruits. For analyzing these compounds, special techniques with minimum preparations and high sensitivity are needed. The capability of a technique for in situ detection of target chemicals can be also a great advantage. Here we report the applicability of ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (UV-MALDI TOF MS) for direct detection of pesticides and the residues on the tomato fruit surface. Fruits grown in the hydroponic system in a greenhouse were sprayed with a mixture of four pesticides including benomyl, triforine, milbemycin and malathion and collected one week later. The pericarp of sprayed and control fruits was peeled and located on a UV-MALDI plate, air-dried and covered with carbon nanotubes or 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid as matrixes. Signals of active and supplementary compounds which are normally present in commercial pesticides could be analyzed and directly detected on the surface of cuticle. A malathion degradation product was also detected on the sprayed fruit pericarp.
  • Online electrospray ionization mass spectrometric monitoring of protease-catalyzed reactions in real time
    Zhan Yu, Zhan Yu, Lee Chuin Chen, Mridul Kanti Mandal, Hiroshi Nonami, Rosa Erra-Balsells, Kenzo Hiraoka, Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 23,   2012年04月01日, Although there are a lot of well established methods for monitoring enzyme-catalyzed reactions, most of them are based on changes in spectroscopic properties during the conversion of substrates to products. However, reactions without optical changes are common, which are inapplicable to these spectroscopic methods. As an alternative technique for enzymologic research, mass spectrometry (MS) is favored due to its specificity, sensitivity, and the ability to obtain stoichiometric information. In this work, probe electrospray ionization (PESI) source coupled with a time of flight mass spectrometer was employed to monitor some typical proteasecatalyzed reactions, including pepsinolysis and trypsinolysis of cytochrome c in real time. Due to the high electrical conductivity of each reaction system, corona discharges are likely to occur, which would decrease intensities of mass spectrometric signals. An ultra-fine sampling probe and an auxiliary vapor spray were adopted to prevent corona discharges. Experimental results from peptic and tryptic digestions of cytochrome c showed different and characteristic catalytic pathways. With the data presented in this study, PESI-MS can be considered as a potential tool for real-time monitoring of enzymatic reactions because of its simplicity in instrumental configuration, wide applicability under harsh conditions, and flexibility in combination with other techniques. © 2012 American Society for Mass Spectrometry.
  • Effect of salt stress on physiological response of tomato fruit grown in hydroponie culture system
    M. M. Hossain, H. Nonami, H. Nonami, Horticultural Science, 39,   2012年03月26日, The effect of salt stress on physiological response of hydroponically grown tomato fruit was investigated. Fruit growth rate, water status, cuticle permeability and induction of blossom-end rot (BER) of tomato fruit were considered for this study. Salt stress was applied by using Ca salt treatment and it plays an important role on all parameters studied in this experiment. Fruit growth rate, predawn water potential, osmotic potential and cuticle permeability were significantly lower in treated plants than in control plants. On the other hand, tissue turgor of control and treated fruit showed almost similar values 12 days after flowering (DAF). This result indicated that turgor was osmotically regulated in fruit under stress condition. Fruit growth rate was found to decline from 12 DAF and eventually ceased when BER externally appeared on fruit surface at the age of 19 DAF in this experiment. The reduction of growth rate coincided with the reduction of water potential in fruit tissue due to salt stress. Although BER externally appeared at 19 DAF anatomical investigation showed that intercellular air space becomes discoloured at least one week before external symptoms appeared on fruit tip. Different levels of cuticular permeability indicated that the deposition of cuticular wax on fruit surface was enhanced by the salt stress condition in tomato fruit. Since, BER was found to appear on fruit tip under high calcium concentration in solution it can be concluded that calcium deficiency was not the only the cause of BER in tomato, rather salt stress might alter metabolic activity in developing tomato fruit.
  • Mass spectrometry of rhenium complexes: A comparative study by using LDI-MS, MALDI-MS, PESI-MS and ESI-MS
    Gabriela Petroselli, Mridul Kanti Mandal, Lee Chuin Chen, Gustavo T. Ruiz, Ezequiel Wolcan, Kenzo Hiraoka, Hiroshi Nonami, Rosa Erra-Balsells, Journal of Mass Spectrometry, 47,   2012年03月01日, A group of rhenium (I) complexes including in their structure ligands such as CF 3SO 3-, CH 3CO 2-, CO, 2,2′-bipyridine, dipyridil[3,2-a:2′3′-c]phenazine, naphthalene-2-carboxylate, anthracene-9-carboxylate, pyrene-1-carboxylate and 1,10-phenanthroline have been studied for the first time by mass spectrometry. The probe electrospray ionization (PESI) is a technique based on electrospray ionization (ESI) that generates electrospray from the tip of a solid metal needle. In this work, mass spectra for organometallic complexes obtained by PESI were compared with those obtained by classical ESI and high flow rate electrospray ionization assisted by corona discharge (HF-ESI-CD), an ideal method to avoid decomposition of the complexes and to induce their oxidation to yield intact molecular cation radicals in gas state [M] +. and to produce their reduction yielding the gas species [M] -.. It was found that both techniques showed in general the intact molecular ions of the organometallics studied and provided additional structure characteristic diagnostic fragments. As the rhenium complexes studied in the present work showed strong absorption in the UV-visible region, particularly at 355nm, laser desorption ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry experiments could be conducted. Although intact molecular ions could be detected in a few cases, LDI mass spectra showed diagnostic fragments for characterization of the complexes structure. Furthermore, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectra were obtained. Nor-harmane, a compound with basic character, was used as matrix, and the intact molecular ions were detected in two examples, in negative ion mode as the [M] -. species. Results obtained with 2-[(2E)-3-(4-tert-buthylphenyl)-2-methylprop-2-enylidene] malononitrile (DCTB) as matrix are also described. LDI experiments provided more information about the rhenium complex structures than did the MALDI ones. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Plant cell measurements with mass spectrometry for speaking cell approach in plant growth factories
    Hiroshi Nonami, Yousef Gholipour, Rosa Erra-Balsells, IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC-PapersOnline), 18,   2011年12月01日, Fast and easy-to-do methods capable to generate metabolite profile of plant single cells and tissues can be quite beneficial for analyzing biochemical and physiological status of growing crops in plant growth factories. Here we report the applicability of Pressure Probe, which is routinely used for pressure probing of living single cells, for microsampling of plant cells. The picoliter sample of cytoplasm was then analyzed for characterizing metabolite content by MALDI mass spectrometry (MS). This powerful technique could make molecular profile of the cell samples by detecting very small amount of metabolites by using our selected matrixes, after verification of detected signals by MS/MS analysis. Concurrent to single cell sampling and mass spectrometry, the plant tissues, from which single cells were analyzed, were directly profiled by MALDI MS after deposition of our novel nanoparticle matrixes on the dried surface of tissue. MALDI MS showed to be able to detect and verify metabolites, particularly sugars, directly from the surface of plant tissues. Interestingly, metabolites, particularly neutral sugars, detected in cell microsamples were comparable to those detected on the tissue. Accordingly, the single cell and tissue analysis can be concurrently carried out to create metabolite profile, an instant picture of the physiology in cell and tissue levels respectively, of plants during growth without need to common metabolite extraction and purification processes, with minimum preparation and high accuracy and reliability. © 2011 IFAC.
  • Detection of protein from detergent solutions by probe electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PESI-MS)
    Mridul Kanti Mandal, Lee Chuin Chen, Zhan Yu, Zhan Yu, Hiroshi Nonami, Rosa Erra-Balsells, Kenzo Hiraoka, Journal of Mass Spectrometry, 46,   2011年10月01日, Detergents are necessarily used for different extraction protocols of proteins from biological cells or tissues. After the extraction, elimination of detergent is necessary for the better performance of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Elimination of detergents is laborious and time-consuming, and also sample loss may be unavoidable. Probe electrospray ionization (PESI) developed in our laboratory has been found to be tolerant to the presence of salts and buffers in sample solutions. In this report, it was examined whether PESI is applicable to the sample solutions that contain high-concentration of detergents. It was found that PESI is highly tolerant to the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate, cetyl trimethylamminium bromide, Triton X100 and 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate compared with conventional ESI and nanoESI. Therefore, PESI can be a potential analytical tool for direct analysis of protein extracts and digests containing high-concentration detergents. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Increased ring-shaped chalkiness and osmotic adjustment when growing rice grains under foehn-induced dry wind condition
    Hiroshi Wada, Hiroshi Nonami, Yoshiyuki Yabuoshi, Atsushi Maruyama, Akio Tanaka, Kenichi Wakamatsu, Tomohiko Sumi, Yasuyuki Wakiyama, Makoto Ohuchida, Satoshi Morita, Crop Science, 51,   2011年07月01日, Foehn-induced dry wind during grain filling increased ring-shaped chalky kernels in rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants. The objective of this study was to determine physiological mechanisms of the occurrence of ring-shaped chalky kernels. Rice plants were subjected to water deficit in a paddy field after shade by applying dry high-speed wind. Additionally, a growth chamber experiment was conducted with plants in pots to measure the water status under the dry wind condition for 24 h by combining in situ turgor (Ψ p) assay in developing endosperms with the water potential measurements. The dry (high vapor pressure deficit [VPD]) wind treatment produced the largest number of ring-shaped chalky kernels due to poor starch accumulation, compared with shade or low-VPD wind treatment. The inner endosperm cells, where a high frequency of chalkiness was observed, spatially maintained Ψ p by osmotic adjustment before the chalky formation with no decline of grain weight. Dry wind reduced photosynthesis due to a partial stomatal closure after water deficit developed. However, these responses, including those related to the plant water status, returned to a level similar to those of the control plants in a day after the dry wind was stopped. We conclude that (i) Ψ p maintenance by osmotic adjustment contributes to grain development under water deficit under foehn conditions and (ii) osmotic adjustment has a role in temporally inhibiting starch accumulation in endosperms, resulting in ring-shaped chalky kernels under foehn-induced water deficit conditions. © Crop Science Society of America.
  • Plasmodium falciparum biosynthesizes sulfoglycosphingolipids
    Malena Landoni, Vilma G. Duschak, Valnice J. Peres, Hiroshi Nonami, Rosa Erra-Balsells, Alejandro M. Katzin, Alicia S. Couto, Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 154,   2007年07月01日, Sulfated glycosphingolipids are present on the surface of a variety of cells. They are active participants in adhesion processes in many systems and appear to be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and other developmental cellular events. However, the body of knowledge about synthesis, structure, and function of glycolipids in parasitic protozoa is very limited so far. In this work, we show by metabolic incorporation of [14C]palmitic acid, [14C]glucose and Na2 35SO4 that sulfoglycosphingolipids are biosynthesized in the three intraerythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum. After saponification, purification of the labelled acidic components was achieved and two components named SPf1 and SPf2 were characterized. Chemical degradations and TLC analysis pointed out to sulfolipidic structures. Analysis by UV-MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry in the negative ion mode using nor-harmane as matrix showed for SPf2 a structure consisting in a disulfated hexose linked to a 20:1 sphingosine acylated with C18:0 fatty acid. Interestingly, parasite treatment with low concentrations of d,l-threo-phenyl-2-palmitoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol (PPMP) caused an arrest on parasite development associated to the inhibition of sulfoglycolipid biosynthesis. Taking into account that sulfoglycolipidic structures are currently involved in adhesion processes, our findings open the possibility to study the participation of this type of structures in the described aggregation phenomena in severe malaria and may contribute to clarify the pathogenesis of the disease. This report shows for the first time the synthesis of sulfoglycolipids in Apicomplexa. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Water status measurements in soil and roots, leaves and stems of crop plants
    H. Nonami, Japanese Journal of Crop Science, 70, (2) 151 - 163,   2001年07月25日
  • Trehalose changes hydraulic conductance of tissue-cultured soybean embryos
    Takashi Ikeda, Mari Iwaya-Inoue, Toshio Fukuyama, Hiroshi Nonami, Plant Biotechnology, 17,   2000年12月01日, The hydraulic properties of tissue-cultured soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) embryos grown on trehalose - containing culture media were investigated. Water potentials of culture media ranged from -0.13 to -0.65 MPa when sucrose and/or trehalose concentrations were altered. The wall extensibility was greatly larger than hydraulic conductance, and the size of the effective turgor was much smaller than that of the growth - induced water potential, indicating that hydraulic conductance and the growth induced water potential were predominantly regulating growth of soybean embryos under tissue culture conditions. The hydraulic conductance of soybean embryos grown on trehalose-containing media became smaller than that in sucrose-containing media. When both sucrose and trehalose were added to the culture media, the hydraulic conductance became an intermediate between only sucrose - containing and only trehalose - containing treatments. It is suggested that trehalose might reduce hydraulic conductance in soybean embryos, resulting in growth retardation of soybean embryos.
  • Effects of endogenous auxin on citrus somatic embryogenesis
    Takashi Ikeda, Kiyohide Kojima, Hiroshi Yakushiji, Shozo Kobayashi, Hiroshi Nonami, Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science, 69,   2000年03月01日, This study investigated the changes in endogenous auxin concentration during embryogenesis of citrus (Citrus sinensis Osb.) in tissue culture. Embryogenic callus (EC) was induced from ovules of 'Trovita orange' and 'Oomishima navel'. In both varieties, the EC having greater capacity for embryogenesis had a correspondingly higher endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) concentration. When the EC in 'Washington navel' and 'Oomishima navel' were cultured on hormone-free media which can induce embryogenesis, the IAA concentration increased for 2 days, then rapidly decreased and stabilized 14 days later. These results suggest that the decrease in IAA concentration is closely related to citrus embryogenesis.
  • Decreased growth-induced water potential. A primary cause of growth inhibition at low water potentials
    Hiroshi Nonami, Yajun Wu, John S. Boyer, Plant Physiology, 114,   1997年12月01日, Cell enlargement depends on a growth-induced difference in water potential to move water into the cells. Water deficits decrease this potential difference and inhibit growth. To investigate whether the decrease causes the growth inhibition, pressure was applied to the roots of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) seedlings and the growth and potential difference were monitored in the stems. In water-limited plants, the inhibited stem growth increased when the roots were pressurized and it reverted to the previous rate when the pressure was released. The pressure around the roots was perceived as an increased turgor in the stem in small cells next to the xylem, but not in outlying cortical cells. This local effect implied that water transport was impeded by the small cells. The diffusivity for water was much less in the small cells than in the outlying cells. The small cells thus were a barrier that caused the growth-induced potential difference to be large during rapid growth, but to reverse locally during the early part of a water deficit. Such a barrier may be a frequent property of meristems. Because stem growth responded to the pressure-induced recovery of the potential difference across this barrier, we conclude that a decrease in the growth-induced potential difference was a primary cause of the inhibition.
  • Cell water potential, osmotic potential, and turgor in the epidermis and mesophyll of transpiring leaves - Combined measurements with the cell pressure probe and nanoliter osmometer
    Hiroshi Nonami, E. D. Schulze, Planta, 177,   1989年01月01日, Water potential, osmotic potential and turgor measurements obtained by using a cell pressure probe together with a nanoliter osmometer were compared with measurements obtained with an isopiestic psychrometer. Both types of measurements were conducted in the mature region of Tradescantia virginiana L. leaves under non-transpiring conditions in the dark, and gave similar values of all potentials. This finding indicates that the pressure probe and the osmometer provide accurate measurements of turgor, osmotic potentials and water potentials. Because the pressure probe does not require long equilibration times and can measure turgor of single cells in intact plants, the pressure probe together with the osmometer was used to determine in-situ cell water potentials, osmotic potentials and turgor of epidermal and mesophyll cells of transpiring leaves as functions of stomatal aperture and xylem water potential. When the xylem water potential was-0.1 MPa, the stomatal aperture was at its maximum, but turgor of both epidermal and mesophyll cells was relatively low. As the xylem water potential decreased, the stomatal aperture became gradually smaller, whereas turgor of both epidermal and mesophyll cells first increased and afterward decreased. Water potentials of the mesophyll cells were always lower than those of the epidermal cells. These findings indicate that evaporation of water is mainly occurring from mesophyll cells and that peristomatal transpiration could be less important than it has been proposed previously, although peristomatal transpiration may be directly related to regulation of turgor in the guard cells. © 1989 Springer-Verlag.
  • Water potential gradients associated with expanding cells.
    Yamada Science Foundation, Osaka and Myu K.K., Tokyo.Proc. of the 22nd Yamada Conference: Plant water relations and growth under stress.,   1989年
  • Overview of current measurement techniques from aspects of plant science.
    Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, U.S.A.'Measurement Techniques in Plant Science' edited by Hashimoto, Y., P.J. Kramer, H. Nonami and B.R. Strain, Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, U.S.A.,   1990年
  • 植物工場における種苗の生長を制御するための培養養液の濃度管理に関する研究
    野並 浩, 木山 浩二, 橋本 康, 日本植物工場学会植物工場学会誌, 3, (1) 1 - 6,   1991年
  • Water and the physiological regulation of growth in controlled environments.
    International Federation of Automatic ControlProc. IFAC/ISHS 1st Workshop on Mathematical and Control Applications in Agriculture and Horticulture., 1,   1991年
  • Computer support system for tomato cultivation in plant growth factory.
    International Federation of Automatic ControlProc. IFAC/ISHS 1st Workshop on Mathematical and Control Applications in Agriculture and Horticulture, 1,   1991年
  • Mechanisms of stomatal movement in response to air humidity, irradiance and xylem water potential.
    Hiroshi Nonami, Ernst Detlef Schulze, Hubert Ziegler, Planta, 183,   1991年12月01日, Turgor, and osmotic and water potentials of subsidiary cells, epidermal cells and mesophyll cells were measured with a pressure probe and a nanoliter osmometer in intact transpiring leaves of Tradescantia virginiana L. Xylem water potential was manipulated by changing air humidity, light, and water supply. In a transpiring leaf the water potential of mesophyll cells was lower, but turgor was higher, than in cells surrounding the stomatal cavity owing to the presence of a cuticle layer which covers the internal surface of subsidiary and guard cells. Cuticular transpiration from the outer leaf surface was negligibly small. When stomata closed in dry air, transpiration decreased despite an increasing vapor-pressure difference between leaf and air, and the water potential of subsidiary cells dropped to the level of the water potential in mesophyll cells. We suggest that the observed decrease of transpiration at increasing vapor-pressure difference can be attributed to a shortage of water supply to the guard cells from subsidiary cells, causing turgor to decrease in the former more than in the latter. The leafs internal cuticle appears to play a special role in channelling the internal water flow during a water shortage. © 1990 Springer-Verlag.
  • Primary events regulating stem growth at low water potentials.
    Hiroshi Nonami, Hiroshi Nonami, John S. Boyer, Plant Physiology, 93,   1990年08月01日, Cell enlargement is inhibited by inadequate water. As a first step toward understanding the mechanism, all the physical parameters affecting enlargement were monitored to identify those that changed first, particularly in coincidence with the inhibition. The osmotic potential, turgor, yield threshold turgor, growth-induced water potential, wall extensibility, and conductance to water were measured in the elongating region, and the water potential was measured in the xylem of stems of dark-grown soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) seedlings. A stepdown in water potential was achieved around the roots by transplanting the seedlings to vermiculite of low water content, and each of the parameters was measured simultaneously in the same plants while intact or within a few minutes of being intact using a newly developed guillotine psychrometer. The gradient of decreasing water potential from the xylem to the enlarging cells (growth-induced water potential) was the first of the parameters to decrease to a growth-limiting level. The kinetics were the same as for the inhibition of growth. The decreased gradient was caused mostly by a decreased water potential of the xylem. This was followed after 5 to 10 hours by a similar decrease in cell wall extensibility and tissue conductance for water. Later, the growth-induced water potential recovered as a result of osmotic adjustment and a rise in the water potential of the xylem. Still later, moderate growth resumed at a rate apparently determined by the low wall extensibility and tissue conductance for water. The turgor did not change significantly during the experiment. These results indicate that the primary event during the growth inhibition was the change in the growth-induced water potential. Because the growth limitation subsequently shifted to the low wall extensibility and tissue conductance for water, the initial change in potential may have set in motion subsequent metabolic changes that altered the characteristics of the wall and cell membranes.
  • Wall extensibility and cell hydraulic conductivity decrease in enlarging stem tissues at low water potentials.
    Hiroshi Nonami, Hiroshi Nonami, John S. Boyer, Plant Physiology, 93,   1990年08月01日, Measurements with a guillotine psychrometer (H Nonami, JS Boyer [1990] Plant Physiol 94: 1601-1609) indicate that the inhibition of stem growth at low water potentials (low ψw) is accompanied by decreases in cell wall extensibility and tissue hydraulic conductance to water that eventually limit growth rate in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.). To check this conclusion, we measured cell wall properties and cell hydraulic conductivities with independent techniques in soybean seedlings grown and treated the same way, i.e. grown in the dark and exposed to low ψw by transplanting dark grown seedlings to vermiculite of low water content. Wall properties were measured with an extensiometer modified for intact plants, and conductances were measured with a cell pressure probe in intact plants. Theory was developed to relate the wall measurements to those with the psychrometer. In the elongation zone, the plastic deformability of the walls decreased when measured with the extensiometer while growth was inhibited at low ψw. It increased during a modest growth recovery. This behavior was the same as that for the wall extensibility observed previously with the psychrometer. Tissue that was killed before measurement with the extensiometer also showed a similar response, indicating that changes in wall extensibility represented changes in wall physical properties and not rates of wall biosynthesis. The elastic compliance (reciprocal of bulk elastic modulus) did not change in the elongating or mature tissue. The hydraulic conductivity of cortical cells decreased in the elongating tissue and increased slightly during growth recovery in a response similar to that observed with the psychrometer. We conclude that the plastic properties of the cell walls and the conductance of the cells to water were decreased at low ψw but that the elastic properties of the walls were of little consequence in this response.
  • Phase Changes in Arrhenius Plots on NMR Relaxation Times for Various Organs of Crop Plants Exposed to Temperature Stresses
    Japanese Society of Environment Control in BiologyEnvironment Control in Biology, 42, (1) 5 - 19,   2004年
  • Humidity distributions in plant populations under different air currents.
    Japanese Society of Environmental Control in BiologyEnvironment Control in Biology, 18,   1980年
  • Oxygen enrichment in deep hydroponic culture improves growth of spinach.
    森本 哲夫, 増田 俊則, 野並 浩, Japanese Society of Environmental Control in BiologyEnvironment Control in Biology, 27, (3) 97 - 102,   1989年
  • Xylem hydraulics, turgor and wall properties during growth.
    British Society for Plant Growth RegulationBritish Society for Plant Growth Regulation, Monograph 21-1990: Importance of Root to Shoot Communication in the Responses to Environmental Stress. edited by Davies, W.J. and B. Jeffcoat.,   1990年
  • Water potential and its components in growing tissues.
    Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, U.S.A.'Measurement Techniques in Plant Science' edited by Hashimoto, Y., P.J. Kramer, H. Nonami and B.R. Strain, Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, U.S.A.,   1990年
  • Direct demonstration of a growth-induced water potential gradient.
    Hiroshi Nonami, Hiroshi Nonami, John S. Boyer, Plant Physiology, 102, (102) 13 - 19,   1993年05月01日, When transpiration is negligible, water potentials in growing tissues are less than those in mature tissues and have been predicted to form gradients that move water into the enlarging cells. To determine directly whether the gradients exist, we measured water potentials along the radius of stems of intact soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) seedlings growing in vermiculite in a water-saturated atmosphere. The measurements were made in individual cells by first determining the turgor with a miniature pressure probe, then determining the osmotic potential of solution from the same cell, and finally summing the two potentials. The osmotic potentials were corrected for sample mixing in the probe. The measurements were checked with a thermocouple psychrometer that gave average tissue water potentials. In the elongating region, the water potential was highest near the xylem and lowest near the epidermis and in the center of the pith. In the basal, more mature region of the same stems, water potentials were near zero next to the xylem and throughout the tissue. These basal potentials reflected mostly the potential of the xylem, which extended into the elongating tissues. Thus, the high basal potential confirmed the high potential near the xylem in the elongating tissues. The psychrometer measurements for each tissue gave average potentials that agreed with the average of the cell potentials from the pressure probe. We conclude that a radial gradient was present in the elongating region that formed a water potential field in three dimensions around the xylem and that confirmed the predictions of Molz and Boyer (F.J. Molz and J.S. Boyer [1978] Plant Physiol 62: 423-429).
  • Physiological regulation of water transport in controlled environments.
    Academic Press'The Computerized Greenhouse: Automatic Control Application in Plant Production' edited by Hashimoto, Y., G.P.A. Bot, W. Day, H.-J. Tantau, H. Nonami. Academic Press,   1993年
  • Sugar accumulation enhanced by osmoregulation in Satsuma mandarin fruit
    Hiroshi Yakushiji, Hiroshi Nonami, Toshio Fukuyama, Sukeyuki Ono, Nobuo Takagi, Yasushi Hashimoto, Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 121,   1996年05月01日, The effect of water stress induced to enhance sugar accumulation in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) fruit was investigated. Satsuma mandarin trees were subjected to water stress using mulch cultivation from late August to early December. In mulch treatment, soil was covered with double-layered plastic sheets that prevented rainfall from permeating the soil, but allowed water from soil to evaporate. The water status of soil, fine roots, pericarps, and juice vesicles was determined using the isopiestic psychrometer. As the severity of water stress increased, both water potential and osmotic potential of fine roots and pericarps significantly decreased in plants grown under mulch cultivation compared to well-watered trees. Although water potential and osmotic potential decreased, turgor of both roots and pericarps of the water stressed trees did not decrease under water stress conditions. Because turgor was maintained, osmoregulation occurred in Satsuma mandarin trees in response to water stress. The osmotic potential of juice vesicles in water-stressed fruit gradually decreased, and sugars accumulated in vesicle cells. Concentrations of sucrose, fructose, and glucose increased in fruit sap under water stress, and the acidity in the fruit juice increased. Furthermore, the total sugar content per fruit of water stressed trees was significantly higher than in fruit of well-watered trees. These results suggest that sugar accumulation in Satsuma mandarin fruit was not caused by dehydration under water stress but rather that sugars were accumulated by active osmoregulation in response to water stress. When sugar components in osmoregulated fruit were analyzed, it was found that monosaccharides, i.e., glucose and fructose, were largely responsible for active osmoregulation in fruit under water stress conditions.
  • Growth regulation in plant factories and greenhouses from a physiological viewpoint.
    Academic Press'The Computerized Greenhouse: Automatic Control Application in Plant Production' edited by Hashimoto, Y., G.P.A. Bot, W. Day, H.-J. Tantau, H. Nonami. Academic Press,   1993年
  • 植物生体計測と生物環境調節
    野並 浩, 日本生物環境調節学会生物環境調節, 32, (4) 203 - 217,   1994年
  • コロイド状バッファー剤を利用しての新しい組織培養培地の開発
    福山 寿雄, 野並 浩, 池田 敬, 逸見 彰男, 橋本 康, 日本植物工場学会植物工場学会誌, 6, (4) 234 - 240,   1994年
  • β-Carboline alkaloids as matrices for matrix-assisted ultraviolet laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry of proteins and sulfated oligosaccharides : A comparative study using phenylcarbonyl compounds, carbazoles and classical matrices. (共著)
    NONAMI H, FUKUI S, ERRA‐BALSELLS R, Journal of Mass Spectrometry, 32, (3) 287 - 296,   1997年01月01日, The successful use of six β-carbolines (i.e. nor-harmane (9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole), harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole), harmine (7-methoxy-1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole), harmol (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indol-7-ol), harmaline (3,4-dihydro-7-methoxy-1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) and harmalol (3,4-dihydro-1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indol-7-ol)) is reported as matrices in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF-MS) (λ(exc) = 337 nm) for proteins (proteins checked: gramicidin S, bovine insulin, aprotinin, horse heart cytochrome c, ribonuclease A, lysozyme, myoglobin, trypsin, protease and bovine serum albumin) and sulfated oligosaccharides (λ-carrageenans of M(r) 549, 712, 1570 and 1733), using stainless-steel probes and membranes (poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF) polymers) to prepare the samples. The possible use of some phenylcarbonyl compounds (hydroxyphenyl ketones, amino- and hydroxybenzoic acids) and a few carbazole derivatives as matrices is also discussed briefly. In addition, the usefulness of the new matrices in MALDI/TOF-MS (λ(exc) = 337 nm) of proteins and sulfated oligosaccharides is compared with those of classical MALDI matrices such as α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, gentisic acid, sinapinic acid, 6-aza-2-thiothymine and 3-indole-trans-β-acrylic acid. Laser desorption/TOF-MS (λ(exc) = 337 nm) of the new matrices is also described.
  • Computerized diagnosis system for plant growth in plant facotry.
    Proc. First Asian Control Conference, 3,   1994年
  • Components of water potential related to tissue differentiation and cell expansion in tissue culture.
    International Society for Horticultural ScienceActa Horticulturae, 393,   1995年
  • β-Carboline alkaloids as matrices for UV-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry in positive and negative ion modes. Analysis of proteins of high molecular weight, and cyclic and acyclic oligosaccharides
    NONAMI H, TANAKA K, FUKUYAMA Y, ERRA‐BALSELLS R, Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 12, (6) 285 - 296,   1998年04月04日, We report that commercially available β-carbolines (nor-harmane (9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole), harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole), harmine (7-methoxy-1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole), harmol (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indol-7-d]), harmaline (3,4-dihydro-7-methoxy-1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) and harmalol (3-4-dihydro-1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indol-7-ol)), are useful MALDI matrices at 337 nm, for cyclic oligosaccharides (cyclodextrins, range 972-1290 Da), acyclic oligosaccharides (range 342-828 Da) and high molecular mass proteins (range 23 290-66 525 Da) in both positive and negative modes. This was investigated by using time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometers of different sensitivities, equipped with and without pulse extraction facilities. A comparison with conventional matrices for carbohydrates (DHB and DHB/HIC) indicates that β-carbolines provide the same level of sensitivity and resolution in the positive mode, but offer the advantage of high levels of sensitivity and resolution in the negative mode. Harmaline has been found to be specially effective for the analysis of high-mass proteins in both modes, and also exhibits excellent experimental reproducibility of the results owing to the homogeneous crystallization of the analyte-matrix mixture over the entire sample surface area. Harmane and nor-harmane are both excellent matrices for high-mass proteins also. As MALDI matrices, β-carbolines permit measurement of sulfated sugars in the negative ion mode as ([M-H]), and of neutral sugars and proteins as both [M+U]+ and [M-H]- in appropriate modes.
  • Cell expansion sustained by growth-induced water potential gradients in tissue-cultured plantlets.
    Yamada Science FoundationProc. of the 32nd Yamada Conference on Plant Cell Walls as Biopolymers with Physiological Functions.,   1992年
  • Plant water relations and control of cell elongation at low water potentials.
    NONAMI H, Journal of Plant Research, 111, (1103) 373 - 382,   1998年09月01日, Recent developments in water status measurement techniques using the psychrometer, the pressure probe, the osmometer and pressure chamber are reviewed, and the process of cell elongation from the viewpoint of plant-water relations is discussed for plants subjected to various environmental stress conditions. Under water-deficient conditions, cell elongation of higher plants can be inhibited by interruption of water flow from the xylem to the surrounding elongating cells. The process of growth inhibition at low water potentials could be reversed by increasing the xylem water potential by means of pressure application in the root region, allowing water to flow from the xylem to the surrounding cells. This finding confirmed that a water potential field associated with growth process, i.e., the growth induced water potential, is an important regulating factor for cell elongation other than metabolic factors. The concept of the growth-induced water potential was found to be applicable for growth retardation caused by cold stress, heat stress, nutrient deficiency and salinity stress conditions. In the present review, the fact that the cell elongation rate is primarily associated with how much water can be absorbed by elongating cells under water-deficiency, nutrient deficiency, salt stress, cold stress and heat stress conditions is suggested.
  • Water-stress-resistant citrus seedlings suitable for fruit production under greenhouse and plant factory conditions.
    International Society for Horticultural ScienceActa Horticulturae, 319,   1992年
  • Sugar accumulation and partitioning in Satsuma mandarin tree tissues and fruit in response to drought stress.
    Hiroshi Yakushiji, Kunihisa Morinaga, Hiroshi Nonami, Journal of American Society for Horticultural Science, 123,   1998年01月01日, Mechanisms of sugar accumulation in response to drought stress in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) fruit were investigated. Predawn leaf water potentials averaged -0.35MPa for well-watered, -0.60 MPa for moderately drought-stressed, and-1.00 MPa for severely drought-stressed glasshouse-grown 3-year-old trees. Fruit peel turgor and fruit growth of the moderately drought-stressed trees recovered to a similar value to that of the well-watered trees. Photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance of both moderately and severely drought-stressed trees were significantly lower than those of the well-watered plants. However, the total sugar content per fruit of moderately drought-stressed trees was the highest among the drought treatments. A 13C-labeling experiment showed that 13C distribution in fruit grown under the moderately drought-stressed condition was the highest. These findings indicate that sugar accumulation in fruit was caused by an increase in translocation of photosynthates into fruit, especially into the juice sacs, under drought stress.
  • Growth regulation of plant seedlings by ion concentration management in hydroponic culture.
    International Society for Horticultural ScienceActa Horticulturae, 319,   1992年
  • Hydraulic contribution in cell elongation of tissue-cultured plants : growth retardation induced by osmotic and temperature stresses and addition of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and benzylaminopurine.
    IKEDA T, NONAMI H, FUKUYAMA T, HASHIMOTO Y, Plant Cell and Environment, 22, (8) 899 - 912,   1999年01月01日, This work was undertaken to determine the growth parameters of Lockhart's equation for finding which component was predominantly contributing to the cell expansion rates of plants subjected to environmental stresses under tissue-culture conditions. Embryos isolated from soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) and kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds were grown under tissue-culture conditions. The water potential of culture media ranged from - 0.02 to - 0.94 MPa so that nutrient deficiency and salt stress conditions could be applied. Additionally, the temperature of culture conditions was set from 10 to 40 °C to apply low-temperature and high-temperature stresses on plants grown at the optimum concentration of culture medium. Cell expansion could be inhibited completely by adding 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and benzylaminopurine to culture media to form callus tissue. The sizes of the water potential gradient between the water source and elongating cells correlated with the speed of growth rates under nutrient deficiency, salt stress, growth retardation induced by plant hormones, low-temperature and high-temperature conditions in the present study, indicating that cell expansion rates were mainly associated with how much water could be absorbed by elongating cells regardless of the kinds of environmental stress conditions applied.
  • 事実データベースを用いた推論に基づくトマト栽培支援システム
    羽藤 堅治, 坂本 碩志, 福山 寿雄, 野並 浩, 橋本 康, 日本生物環境調節学会生物環境調節, 30, (4) 185 - 191,   1992年
  • Water potential associated with cell elongation and cell division of tissue-cultured carnation plants.
    IKEDA T, NONAMI H, FUKUYAMA T, HASHIMOTO Y, Plant Biotechnology, 16, (2) 115 - 121,   1999年12月01日, This work was undertaken to determine the growth parameters of Lockhart's equation for finding which component was predominantly contributing to the cell expansion rates of tissue-cultured carnation plants (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). The water potential of the culture media ranged from -0.02 to -0.51 MPa so that water stress conditions could be applied. Cell expansion could be inhibited completely by adding 2,4dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and benzylaminopurine (BA) to the culture media to form callus tissue. The sizes of the water potential gradient between the water source and the elongating cells correlated to the speed of growth rates under nutrient deficiency and growth retardation induced by the plant hormones, indicating that cell expansion rates were mainly associated with how much water could be absorbed by the elongating cells regardless of changes in growth under osmotic stress and growth retardation induced by addition of 2,4-D and BA.
  • The effects of drought and UV-radiation upon chlorophyll fluorescence and CO2 assimilation.
    'Research in Photosynthesis,' edited by N. Murata, Kluwer Academic PublishersProc. of the 9th International Congress on Photosynthesis, 4,   1992年
  • Improvement of tomato fruit production by nutrient supply management in greenhouses.
    International Federation of Automatic ControlProc. IFAC/ISHS 1st Workshop on Mathematical and Control Applications in Agriculture and Horticulture, 1,   1991年
  • Environmental control for plant growth in plant factory operation and greenhouse management from physiological viewpoint.
    International Federation of Automatic ControlProc. IFAC/ISHS 1st Workshop on Mathematical and Control Applications in Agriculture and Horticulture, 1,   1991年
  • A simple enzymatic procedure for the synthesis of a hydroxylated polyester from glycerol and adipic acid.
    IGLESIAS L E, FUKUYAMA Y, NONAMI H, ERRA‐BALSELLS R, BALDESSARI A, Biotechnology Techniques, 13, (12) 923 - 926,   1999年12月01日, Lipase B from Candida antarctica catalyzed regioselectively the polyesterification of glycerol and adipic acid. UV-MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of the polymers shows low molecular weight polyesters (1314-1716) with very narrow polydispersities (1.0-1.2).
  • Cagelike precursors of high-molar-mass silsesquioxanes formed by the hydrolytic condensation of trialkoxysilanes.
    EISENBERG P, ERRA‐BALSELLS R, ISHIKAWA Y, LUCAS J C, MAURI A N, NONAMI H, RICCARDI C C, WILLIAMS R J J, Macromolecules, 33, (6) 1940 - 1947,   2000年03月21日, High-molar-mass silsesquioxanes (SSQO) based on (3-glycidoxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GPMS) and (3-methacryloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPMS) were synthesized. The hydrolytic condensation of GPMS was performed using HCOOH (0.1 N) as catalyst, keeping the molar ratio H2O/Si = 3. A first step was performed in tetrahydrofuran (THF) at 50°C, followed by a second step in diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA), where temperature was increased in steps up to 140°C. The hydrolytic condensation of MPMS was performed in bulk with HCOOH 98%, at T = 50 or 70°C, using molar ratios of HCOOH/Si = 3 or 6. Homogeneous solutions were obtained for both silanes. The reaction was followed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), and final products were characterized by matrix-assisted ultraviolet laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UV-MALDI-TOF MS), FTIR, and 1H and 29Si NMR. Molar-mass distributions showed the presence of clusters corresponding to products formed in different generations. With the aid of UV-MALDI-TOF MS, the different species present in every cluster could be identified for one of the silsequioxanes derived from MPMS. During the initial stage of the hydrolytic condensation, species with 7-12 Si atoms were produced. They mainly consisted of incompletely condensed polyhedra (species with 1-3 OH per molecule) and ladder-type structures (species with 4 OH per molecule). Species with more OH groups were condensed with a higher probability, giving place to a second generation of products. This process accounts for the presence of a cluster of species with 14-24 Si atoms and the enrichment of the first cluster in the more condensed structures (T7(OH), T8(OH)2, and T9(OH)). Third and fourth generations of condensation products were also present. Structures of different species may be depicted as combinations of incompletely condensed polyhedra with ladder fragments.
  • 高カルシウム濃度培養液処理で起こるトマト果実の尻腐れとその原因
    趙 日煥, 野並 浩, 福山 寿雄, 逸見 彰男, 橋本 康, 日本植物工場学会植物工場学会誌, 4, (1) 40 - 46,   1992年
  • Measurement and control in transplant production systems.
    Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht/Boston/London'Transplant Production Systems' edited by Kurata, K. and T. Kozai, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht/Boston/London,   1992年
  • Matrix-assisted ultraviolet laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of sulfated mannans from the red seaweed Nothogenia fastigiata.
    ERRA‐BALSELLS R, KOLENDER A A, MATULEWICZ M C, NONAMI H, CEREZO A S, Carbohydrate Research, 329, (1) 157 - 167,   2000年10月20日, Matrix-assisted ultraviolet laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UV-MALDI-TOF-MS) was applied to sulfated xylo-mannan fractions from Nothogenia fastigiata in order to determine their molecular weights and distribution profiles. The number-average molecular weight calculated from the spectra was similar to that determined by chemical end-group analysis for the lower molecular weight fractions. For the other fractions, the number-average molecular weight was lower than that chemically determined; the increased difference may be attributed to higher desorption difficulties and, consequently, mass-dependent discrimination. A reconstructed spectrum, using the peaks obtained from all the fractions, suggested an unimodal distribution. The best results were obtained by using 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid as matrix doped with 1-hydroxyisoquinoline and with harmane and nor-harmane. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.
  • Turgor and cell wall properties in somatic embryos differentiated in suspension culture.
    Yamada Science FoundationProc. of the 32nd Yamada Conference on Plant Cell Walls as Biopolymers with Physiological Functions.,   1992年
  • Hydraulic Conductance Associated with Growth of Flower Stalks, Leaves and Roots in Tulip Plants.
    和田 博史, 井上 眞理, 秋田 充, 野並 浩, Japan Society of Environment Control in BiologyEnvironment Control in Biology, 42, (3) 193 - 203,   2004年
  • 生長に伴った水ポテンシャル勾配の直接計測
    米国植物生理学会誌, (102) 13 - 19,   1993年
  • One-step synthesis of polyhedral silsesquioxanes bearing bulky substituents : UV-MALDI-TOF and ESI-TOF mass spectrometry characterization of reaction products.
    FASCE D P, WILLIAMS R J J, ERRA‐BALSELLS R, ISHIKAWA Y, NONAMI H, Macromolecules, 34, (11) 3534 - 3539,   2001年05月22日, The NaOH-catalyzed hydrolytic condensation of the reaction product between N-(βaminoethyl)-γ-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane and phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE) was followed by matrix-assisted ultraviolet laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UV-MALDI-TOF MS) and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF MS). After 24 h at 50 °C, main condensation products were a mixture of perfect and imperfect polyhedra: T8, T9(OH), and T10, with traces of T7(OH) and T11(OH). Every one of these products was composed of a series of peaks in the mass spectra, accounting for the incomplete reaction of PGE with the aminosilane (e.g., T8 showed the presence of the species containing 24 PGE units arising from the complete reaction of the initial silane, as well as species containing 23, 22, and 21 PGE units). A thermal treatment to 150 °C led to the appearance of extra peaks corresponding to intramolecular dehydration products. Peaks corresponding to the loss of one water molecule from T9(OH) and T7(OH) were present and could be ascribed to the reaction between SiOH and a secondary OH group. Dehydration products from T8 and T10 were observed, as well as species arising from the loss of two water molecules from T9(OH) and T7(OH). A plausible explanation for the presence of these peaks is the rupture of a Si-O-Si bond in the presence of NaOH, followed by condensation of the resulting fragments with secondary OH groups.
  • UV-MALDI-TOF and ESI-TOF mass spectrometry characterization of silsesquioxanes obtained by the hydrolytic condensation of(3-Glycidoxypropyl)-trimethoxysilane in an epoxidized solvent.
    WILLIAMS R J J, ERRA‐BALSELLS R, ISHIKAWA Y, NONAMI H, MAURI A N, RICCARDI C C, Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, 202, (11) 2425 - 2433,   2001年08月04日, Silsesquioxanes obtained by the bydrolytic condensation of (3-glycidoxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GPMS) in diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) were characterized by electraspray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF MS) and matrix-assisted ultraviolet laser desorption/ionizatian time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UV-MALDI-TOF MS), employing two different matrices and both positive and negative ion modes. A bimodal distribution of molar masses, in the 1300-6400 m/z range, was observed in MALDI mass spectra. This distribution accounted for oligomers formed in two successive generations but did not include a cluster of higher molar-mass species present in SEC chromatograms. Most of the peaks present in ESI and MALDI mass spectra could be described by the generic formula Tn(OCH3)m, with m = 0, 2, and 4 for n even, m = 1, 3, 5 for n = odd, and T = RSiO(3n-m)/2n. This corresponds to completely condensed polyhedra (m = 0), incompletely hydrolyzed polyhedra (m = 1 to 3), and their precursors (m = 4). Predominant species in the first cluster contained 10 to 14 Si atoms whereas those in the second cluster had 18 to 23 Si atoms. Small amounts of the following species: T8(OH)(OCH2), T9(OH), T10(OH)(OCH3), and T11(OH) could be identified in MALDI MS, using 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (nor-harmane) as matrix in the I negative ion mode. It was inferred that some of these species had a relevant participation in the generation of the second cluster of higher molar masses. The stability of the silsesquioxane solution in DGEBA was the result of the very small concentration of free SiOH groups available for further condensation. © Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, 2001.
  • ウンシュウミカン果実における浸透圧調節機能による糖集積
    米国園芸学会誌, 121,   1996年
  • Synthesis of chiral polyhydroxy polyamides having chains of defined regio and stereoregularity
    ORGUEIRA H A, ERRA‐BALSELLS R, NONAMI H, VARELA O, Macromolecules, 34, (4) 687 - 695,   2001年02月13日, 1,6-Diaminohexane and a 2-(S)-hydroxypentanedioic acid 5,2-lactone derivative (3) were polycondensed to afford an aregic polyamide 4. A chiral monomer (5) having a 2-fold axis of symmetry was chemoselectively constructed from 3, and upon polymerization with the diamine led to an AABB-type polyamide having a syndioregic orientation of the hydroxyl substituents. The analogous isoregic polyamide 11 was also prepared. The three polymers had the same basic structure, but they differ in their regio and stereoregularity. These polyamides, which displayed optical activity, were characterized by IR and 1H and 13C NMR, and their molecular weights were estimated by GPC, viscosimetry, and matrix-assited ultraviolet laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UV-MALDI-TOF MS). This technique was particularly convenient to confirm the repeat units and to detect the functional groups at both ends of the chains. In accordance with their growth processes polyamides 11 and 12 showed the typical UV-MALDI-TOF spectrum for homopolymerization, and polyamides 4 and 6 showed those corresponding to growing by copolymerization. Besides, in agreement with their stereoregularity, polyamides 6 and 11 showed better crystalline properties than those of 4.
  • 環境ストレス下における組織培養植物体の成長を制御する水ポテンシャル場
    池田 敬, 野並 浩, 橋本 康, 生物環境調節, 34, (2) 141 - 146,   1996年
  • 農作物の水分生理(連載記事)
    農業および園芸(養賢堂),   1998年
  • Evaluation of pyridoindoles, pyridylindoles and pyridylpyridoindoles as matrices for ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
    Hiroshi Nonami, Feiyue Wu, Randolph P. Thummel, Yuko Fukuyama, Hidenobu Yamaoka, Rosa Erra-Balsells, Rosa Erra-Balsells, Rosa Erra-Balsells, Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 15,   2001年12月27日, In an effort to gain an understanding of the processes governing ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (UV-MALDI), direct comparison was made of the mass spectra of proteins, carbohydrates and synthetic polymers (polyethylene glycol, polyester and polyamide) by using pyridylindoles, pyridoindoles and pyridylpyridoindoles as UV (337 nm)-MALDI-TOFMS matrices in positive and negative ion mode. In order to study the combined effect of the indole N-H and the pyridine nitrogen of the MALDI matrix on the desorption/ionization process in MALDI, compounds were selected that include either or both of these functions in their structure. Within the compounds studied only those that possess simultaneously both functions in a 1,4-relation behave as very good matrices for proteins. These compounds also work as matrices for some carbohydrates and synthetic polymers used as analytes in the present study. Some of the compounds were also found to be useful for the post-source decay (PSD) analysis of cyclodextrins in positive and negative ion mode. In several cases we also examined the matrix behavior of the corresponding N-methylindole derivatives. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • 農作物の水分生理(連載記事)
    養賢堂農業および園芸(養賢堂), 74,   1999年
  • Silsesquioxanes Derived from the Bulk Polycondensation of [3-(Methacryloxy)propyl]trimethoxysilane with Concentrated Formic Acid: Evolution of Molar Mass Distributions and Fraction of Intramolecular Cycles.
    EISENBERG P, ERRA‐BALSELLS R, ISHIKWA Y, LUCAS J C, NONAMI H, WILLIAMS R J J, Macromolecules, 35, (4) 1160 - 1174,   2002年02月12日, The polycondensation of [3-(methacryloxy)propyl]trimethoxysilane was performed in bulk, using 98 wt % formic acid (molar ratio HCOOH/Si = 3 or 6), at 50 or 70°C, for periods of time of up to 1 month. The resulting silsesquioxanes (SSOs) were characterized by 1H NMR, FTIR, SEC, UV-MALDI-TOF MS (linear, reflector, and post-source decay modes), and ESI-TOF MS. The residual concentrations of Si-OCH3 groups, and generated CH3OH and HCOOCH3, were quantitatively monitored by 1H NMR during the initial stage of the synthesis. After 2 days of reaction at 50°C, or about 6 h at 70°C, the resulting SSO mainly contained residual Si-OH groups with only traces of Si-OCH3 groups, as was also confirmed by FTIR and UV-MALDI-TOF MS in the reflector mode. After this time, the polycondensation continued slowly during storage at room temperature, basically through Si-OH + Si-OH reactions. The average fraction of intramolecular cycles increased continuously during the polycondensation. An average value, fav = 0.81, was found for species containing 6-24 Si atoms in a typical reaction product. This evidenced the presence of species with relatively closed structures. In MS/MS spectra, fragmentation of one or more ester groups attached to Si atoms was observed, following a McLafferty rearrangement. The addition of water to the initial formulation (about 3:1 H2O/Si molar ratio) led to a slower polycondensation rate and to a decrease of the average fraction of intramolecular cycles (formation of more open structures). Therefore, the use of 98 wt% formic acid was useful to synthesize SSOs containing a higher fraction of intramolecular cycles than those resulting from conventional formulations.
  • Cell water potential, osmotic potential, and turgor in the epidermis and mesophyll of transpiring leaves : Combined measurements with the cell pressure probe and nanoliter osmometer.
    Planta, 177,   1986年
  • Matrix-assisted ultraviolet laser-desorption ionization and electrospray-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of sulfated neocarrabiose oligosaccharides.
    FUKUYAMA Y, CIANCIA M, NONAMI H, CEREZO A S, ERRA‐BALSELLS R, MATULEWICZ M C, Carbohydrate Reasearch, 337, (17) 1553 - 1562,   2002年09月27日, Several commercial sulfated neocarrabiose oligosaccharides were analyzed by matrix-assisted ultraviolet laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UV-MALDI-TOF-MS). UV-MALDI-TOF-MS was carried out in the linear and reflectron modes and, as routine, in both the positive- and negative-ion modes. 2,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acid and nor-harmane were used as matrices. In the positive- and negative-ion modes, with both matrices, peaks corresponding to (M+Na)+ and (M-Na)- ions, respectively, were obtained, with only some signals due to glycosidic linkage cleavages (prompt fragmentation). With 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid abundant matrix signals were observed; nor-harmane afforded very few matrix signals in both ion modes, but more desulfation (prompt fragmentation) of the compounds occurred. When the desorption/ionization process was highly efficient, the post-source decay (PSD) fragmentation patterns were also investigated; most of the fragments detected derived from glycosidic linkage cleavages. Electrospray-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS) in the negative-ion mode confirmed, with the observation of the (M-Na)- and the multiply charged anions, the identity and the purity of the samples. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Poly(silsesquioxanes) derived from the hydrolytic condensation of organotrialkoxysilanes containing hydroxyl groups
    Ignacio E. dell'Erba, Diana P. Fasce, Roberto J J Williams, Rosa Erra-Balsells, Yuko Fukuyama, Hiroshi Nonami, Journal of Organometallic Chemistry, 686,   2003年12月01日, Organotrialkoxysilanes containing secondary hydroxyl groups were synthesized by reacting 1 mole of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APS) with 1 or 2 mole of phenylglycidylether (PGE). Resulting products, APS-PGE and APS-PGE2, respectively, were subjected to hydrolytic condensation at 50 °C during 24 h. For APS-PGE, the reaction was performed using a molar ratio [H2O]/Si=3, without addition of an external catalyst. For APS-PGE2, the reaction was catalyzed by HCOOH or NaOH. Resulting poly(silsesquioxanes) (PSSO) were characterized by size exclusion chromatography, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy and matrix-assisted ultraviolet laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UV-MALDI-TOF MS). PSSO derived from APS-PGE and APS-PGE2, catalyzed by HCOOH, exhibited a relatively narrow distribution of polyhedral structures. This constitutes a simple one-step synthesis of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) functionalized with amine and/or hydroxyl groups. The directionality of the reaction pathway towards the formation of polyhedral structures was ascribed to the formation of intramolecular Si-O-C bonds through the reaction of SiOEt or SiOH groups with secondary hydroxyl groups. Intramolecular Si-O-C bonds were found in the structures of APS-PGE and APS-PGE2, and in most of the species of the PSSO obtained from the NaOH-catalyzed reaction of APS-PGE2. A small fraction of surviving Si-O-C bonds was also found in the polyhedral structures of the PSSO derived from the hydrolytic condensation of APS-PGE and APS-PGE2 catalyzed by formic acid. By usual organic reactions transforming hydroxyl groups into other functional groups, it is possible to generate narrow distribution of multi-functionalized POSS starting from an OH-functionalized organotrialkoxysilane. © 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Turgor and growth at low water potentials.
    Plant Physiology, 89,   1989年
  • UV-Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Synthetic Polymers by using nor-Harmane as Matrix
    Rosa Erra-Balsells, Hirosi Nonami, ARKIVOC 2003 (Commemorative Issue in Honor of Prof. Roberto Rossi and Prof. Edmundo Rúveda), 2003,   2003年12月01日, The matrix-assisted ultraviolet laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectra (UV-MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis of some synthetic polymers was studied. The results obtained by using nor-harmane, gentisic acid (GA) and other UV-MALDI matrices, in positive and negative ion modes, were compared. Nor-harmane worked as an efficient matrix for the synthetic polymers belonging to the families of polyethylenglycol (PEG), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), polystyrene (PS) and poly(dimethyl)siloxane (PDMS). This behaviour was quite noticeable in negative ion mode for polar-protic polymers (PEG) and in both ion modes for non-polar polymers (PS). For the latter analysis the addition of Ag+ salts was not necessary for the ionization process. The formation of Ag clusters when Ag+ salts are used as the cationizing agent is discussed. Because the initiation of the UV-MALDI process is a photochemical reaction (matrix + h (337 nm) → matrix*), the acid-base character of nor-harmane in the ground and the lower electronic excited singlet state, together with other photophysical properties are briefly discussed. The excellent results obtained in the analysis of commercial synthetic polymers with nor-harmane allow us to propose these analyte-matrix systems for UV-MALDI-TOF-MS calibration.
  • Origin of growth-induced water potential : Solute concentration is low in apoplast of enlarging tissues.
    Plant Physiology, 83,   1987年
  • Matrix-assisted ultraviolet laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of β-(1→3), β-(1→4)-xylans from Nothogenia fastigiata using nor-harmane as matrix
    FUKUYAMA Y, KOLENDER A A, NISHIOKA M, NONAMI H, MATULEWICZ M C, ERRA‐BALSELLS R, CEREZO A S, WileyRapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 19, (3) 349 - 358,   2005年02月17日, Three xylan fractions isolated from the red seaweed Nothogenia fastigiata (Nemaliales) were analyzed by ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UV-MALDI-TOFMS). UV-MALDI-TOFMS was carried out in the linear and reflectron modes, and as routine in the positive and negative ion modes. Of the several matrices tested, nor-harmane was the only effective one giving good spectra in the positive ion mode. The number-average molar masses of two of the fractions, calculated from the distribution profiles, were lower than those determined previously by 1H NMR analysis, suggesting a decrease in the ionization efficiency with increasing molecular weight; weight-average molar mass and polydispersity index were also determined. As the xylans retained small but significant quantities of calcium salts, the influence of added Ca2+ as CaCl 2 on UV-MALDI-MS was investigated. The simultaneous addition of sodium chloride and calcium chloride was also analyzed. Addition of sodium chloride did not change the distribution profile of the native sample showing that the inhibitory effect is due to Ca2+ and not to Cl-. Addition of calcium chloride with 1:1 analyte/salt molar ratio gave spectra with less efficient desorption/ionization of oligomers; the signals of these oligomers were completely suppressed when the addition of the salt became massive (1:100 analyte/salt molar ratio). Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Pressure probe and isopiestic psychrometer measure similar turgor.
    Plant Physiology, 83,   1987年
  • Negative pressure in the apoplast of elongating tissue induces water uptake for cell elongation in tissue-cultured plants.
    H. Nonami, Y. Hashimoto, International Society for Horticultural ScienceActa Horticulturae, 440,   1996年12月01日, This work was undertaken to investigate to what extent water uptake capacity could regulate cell expansion rates of plants subjected to environmental stresses under tissue-culture conditions. Embryos isolated from soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds, and shoot meristems of carnation plants (Dianthus vulgaris L.) were grown under tissue-culture conditions. Water potential of culture media ranged from -0.02 to -0.94 MPa so that nutrient deficiency and salt stress conditions could be applied to plants grown in the media. Additionally, the temperature of culture conditions was set from 10 to 40 °C to apply low temperature and high temperature stresses on plants grown at the optimum concentration of culture medium. Cell expansion could be inhibited completely by adding auxin and cytokinine to culture media to form callus tissue. Sizes of the water potential gradient between the water source and elongating cells were linearly correlated with growth rates under nutrient deficiency, salt stress, changes in morphogenesis, low temperature and high temperature conditions in all plant species used in the present study, indicating that cell expansion rates were regulated by how much water could be absorbed by elongating cells regardless of kinds of given environmental stress conditions. The driving force for water uptake in elongating cells was the negative pressure in the apoplast in the elongating tissue.
  • Growth-induced water potential regulates growth of tissue-cultured plantletsunder environmental stresses
    池田 敬, 野並 浩, 橋本 康, Environment Control in Biology, 34, (2) 141 - 146,   1996年
  • Decreased growth-induced water potential : A primary cause of growth inhibition at low water potentials. (共著)
    Plant Physiology, 114,   1997年
  • β-Carbolines as matrices for UV-MALDI/TOF-MS analysis of proteins in positive and negative ion modes. Comparison of the properties of β-carbolines and N-methyl-β-carbolines.
    Hiroshi Nonami, Martín Orcoyen, Yuko Fukuyama, Miriana C. Biondic, Rosa Erra-Balsells, Asociacion Quimica ArgentinaAnales de la Asociacion Quimica Argentina, 86,   1998年12月01日, In an effort to gain an understanding of the processes governing ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionization (UV-MALDI), we made a direct comparison of mass spectra of proteins obtained by using NH free β-carbolines (nor-harmane, harmane and harmine) and the corresponding N-methyl derivatives as UV(337 nm)-MALDI TOF-MS matrices in positive and negative ion modes.
  • Trechalose changes hydraulic conductance of tissue-cultured soybean embryos.
    IKEDA T, IWAYA‐INOUE M, FUKUYAMA T, NONAMI H, Plant Biotechnology, 17, (2) 119 - 125,   2000年
  • Structural analysis of the N-glycans of the major cysteine proteinase of Trypanosoma cruzi. Identification of sulfated high-mannose type oligosaccharides.
    Mariana Barboza, Vilma G. Duschak, Yuko Fukuyama, Yuko Fukuyama, Hiroshi Nonami, Rosa Erra-Balsells, Juan J. Cazzulo, Alicia S. Couto, Alicia S. Couto, FEBS Journal, 272,   2005年08月01日, Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasitic protozoan that causes Chagas disease, contains a major cysteine proteinase, cruzipain. This lysosomal enzyme bears an unusual C-terminal extension that contains a number of post-translational modifications, and most antibodies in natural and experimental infections are directed against it. In this report we took advantage of UV-MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry in conjunction with peptide N-glycosidase F deglycosylation and high performance anion exchange chromatography analysis to address the structure of the N-linked oligosaccharides present in this domain. The UV-MALDI-TOF MS analysis in the negative-ion mode, using nor-harmane as matrix, allowed us to determine a new striking feature in cruzipain: sulfated high-mannose type oligosaccharides. Sulfated GlcNAc2Man3 to GlcNAc 2Man9 species were identified. In accordance, after chemical or enzymatic desulfation, the corresponding signals disappeared. In addition, by UV-MALDI-TOF MS analysis (a) a main population of high-mannose type oligosaccharides was shown in the positive-ion mode, (b) lactosaminic glycans were also identified, among them, structures corresponding to monosialylated species were detected, and (c) as an interesting fact a fucosylated oligosaccharide was also detected. The presence of the deoxy sugar was further confirmed by high performance anion exchange chromatography. In conclusion, the total number of oligosaccharides occurring in cruzipain was shown to be much higher than previous estimates. This constitutes the first report on the presence of sulfated glycoproteins in Trypanosomatids. © 2005 FEBS.
  • Nor-harmane (9H-pyrido[3,4-b] indole) as outstanding matrix for UV-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis of synthetic and bio-polymers.
    Environment Control in Biology, 40, (1) 55 - 73,   2002年
  • Lipase-catalyzed synthesis and characterization of copolymers from ethyl acrylate as the only monomer starting material.
    RUSTOY Eduardo M., SATO Yasuto, NONAMI Hiroshi, ERRA−BALSELLS Rosa, BALDESSARI Alicia, Polymer, 48, (6) 1517 - 1525,   2007年03月08日, Several acrylic copolymers containing, at random, sequences of poly(ethyl acrylate) and poly(N-(2-hydroxyethyl)acrylamide) were obtained from ethyl acrylate as the only monomer starting material in a chain polymerization process, catalyzed by Candida antarctica lipase B. In the presence of ethanolamine, the enzyme not only catalyzes the chain polymerization of ethyl acrylate but also aminolysis the pendant ester groups. The products, characterized by FTIR, 1H and 13C NMR and UV-MALDI-TOF-MS, show low molecular weight and high monodispersity. The activity showed by C. antarctica lipase B in the polymerization reaction is a new example of enzyme promiscuity. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Effects of trehalose on flower senescence from the view point of physical states of water.
    Environment Control in Biology, 41, (1) 3 - 15,   2003年
  • The effect of temperature on the stability of compounds used as UV-MALDI-MS matrix: 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone, α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, nor-harmane and harmane.
    Olga I. Tarzi, Hiroshi Nonami, Rosa Erra-Balsells, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Journal of Mass Spectrometry, 44,   2009年02月01日, The thermal stability of several commonly used crystalline matrix-assisted ultraviolet laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (UV-MALDI-MS) matrices, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (gentisic acid; GA), 2,4,6- trihydroxyacetophenone (THA), α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHC), 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (sinapinic acid; SA), 9H-pirido[3,4-b] indole (nor-harmane; nor-Ho), 1-methyl-9H-pirido[3,4-b]indole (harmane; Ho), perchlorate of nor-harmanonium ([nor-Ho + H]+) and perchlorate of harmanonium ([Ho + H]+) was studied by heating them at their melting point and characterizing the remaining material by using different MS techniques [electron ionization mass spectrometry (EI-MS), ultraviolet laserdesorption/ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UV-LDI-TOF-MS) and electrospray ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS)] as well as by thin layer chromatography analysis (TLC), electronic spectroscopy (UV-absorption, fluorescence emission and excitation spectroscopy) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR). In general, all compounds, except for CHC and SA, remained unchanged after fusion. CHC showed loss of CO2, yielding the trans-/cis-4- hydroxyphenylacrilonitrile mixture. This mixture was unambiguously characterized by MS and 1H-NMR spectroscopy, and its sublimation capability was demonstrated. These results explain the well-known cluster formation, fading (vanishing) and further recovering of CHC when used as a matrix in UV-MALDI-MS. Commercial SA (SA 98%; trans-SA/cis-SA 5:1) showed mainly cis- to-trans thermal isomerization and, with very poor yield, loss of CO2, yielding (3′,5′-dimethoxy-4′-hydroxyphenyl)-1-ethene as the decarboxilated product. These thermal conversions would not drastically affect its behavior as a UV-MALDI matrix as happens in the case of CHC. Complementary studies of the photochemical stability of these matrices in solid state were also conducted. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Application of Pressure Probe and UV-MALDI-TOF MS for Direct Analysis of Plant Underivatized Carbohydrates in Subpicoliter Single-Cell Cytoplasm Extract.
    GHOLIPOUR Yousef, NONAMI Hiroshi, ERRA−BALSELLS Rosa, Elsevier Inc.Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 19, (12) 1841 - 1848,   2008年12月01日, Single-cell cytoplasm sap (1-10 pL) was extracted by using a pressure probe glass microcapillary tip from tulip leaf and bulb and analyzed by UV-MALDI-TOF MS for free underivatized carbohydrate content. Three matrices including 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone (THAP), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in positive ion mode were selected for analysis because of acceptable carbohydrate-related signal reproducibility. Disaccharide and oligosaccharide (up to 15 Hex when THAP was used, 11 Hex with DHB, and 7 Hex with CNTs) were detected in tulip bulb cell cytoplasm sample. When DHB was used as matrix, neutral carbohydrates were more abundantly detected as sodiated cations; the sugar-related signals, however, appeared as dominant potassiated cations when THAP and CNTs were used. Small amount of monosaccharide was also detected in bulb cell cytoplasm with CNTs as matrix. UV-MALDI-TOF MS of leaf cell extract resulted in high-resolution detection of hexose and disaccharide with DHB, THAP, and CNTs. © 2008 American Society for Mass Spectrometry.
  • In situ analysis of plant tissue underivatized carbohydrates and on-probe enzymatic degraded starch by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry by using carbon nanotubes as matrix.
    Yousef Gholipour, Hiroshi Nonami, Rosa Erra-Balsells, Elsevier Inc.Analytical Biochemistry, 383,   2008年12月15日, Underivatized carbohydrates of tulip bulb and leaf tissues were characterized in situ by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) by using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as matrix. Two sample preparation methods-(i) depositing CNTs on the fresh tissue slices placed on the probe and (ii) locating semitransparent tissues on a dried layer of CNTs on the probe-were examined. Furthermore, practicability of in situ starch analysis by MALDI-TOF MS was examined by detection of glucose originated from on-probe amyloglucosidase-catalyzed degradation of starch on the tissue surface. Besides, CNTs could efficiently desorb/ionize natural mono-, di-, and oligosaccharides extracted from tulip bulb tissues as well as glucose resulting from starch enzymatic degradation in vitro. These results were compared with those obtained by in situ MALDI-TOF MS analysis of similar tissues. Positive ion mode showed superior signal reproducibility. CNTs deposited under semitransparent tissue could also desorb/ionize neutral carbohydrates, leading to nearly complete elimination of matrix cluster signals but with an increase in tissue-originated signals. Furthermore, several experiments were carried out to compare the efficiency of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, nor-harmane, α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, and CNTs as matrices for MALDI of neutral carbohydrates from the intact plant tissue surface and for enzymatic tissue starch degradation; these results are discussed in brief. Among matrices studied, the lowest laser power was needed to acquire carbohydrate signals with high signal-to-noise ratio and resolution when CNTs were used. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Improvement of hydroponic culture medium by adding calcium-zeolite.
    International Society for Horticultural ScienceActa Horticulturae, 396,   1995年
  • Alternative Processing of Arabidopsis Hsp70 Precursors during Protein Import into Chloroplasts.
    R. M Udayangani Ratnayake, Hitoshi Inoue, Hiroshi Nonami, Mitsuru Akita, Mitsuru Akita, Mitsuru Akita, Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 72, (11) 2926 - 2935,   2008年12月01日, During protein import into chloroplasts, one of the Hsp70 proteins in pea (Hsp70-IAP), previously reported to localize in the intermembrane space of chloroplasts, was found to interact with the translocating precursor protein but the gene for Hsp70-IAP has not been identified yet. In an attempt to identify the Arabidopsis homolog of Hsp70-IAP, we employed an in vitro protein import assay to determine the localization of three Arabidopsis Hsp70 homologs (AtHsp70-6 through 8), predicted for chloroplast targeting. AtHsp70-6 and AtHsp70-7 were imported into chloroplasts and processed into similar-sized mature forms. In addition, a smaller-sized processed form of AtHsp70-6 was observed. All the processed forms of both AtHsp70 proteins were localized in the stroma. Organelle-free processing assays revealed that the larger processed forms of both AtHsp70-6 and AtHsp70-7 were cleaved by stromal processing peptidase, whereas the smaller processed form of AtHsp70-6 was produced by an unspecified peptidase.
  • Blossom-end rot of tomato plants may not be directly caused by calcium deficiency.
    International Society for Horticultural ScienceActa Horticulturae, 396,   1995年
  • Effect of Low Root Temperature on Hydraulic Conductivity of Rice Plants and the Possible Role of Aquaporins.
    MURAI‐HATANO Mari, KUWAGATA Tsuneo, SAKURAI Junko, NONAMI Hiroshi, AHAMED Arifa, NAGASUGA Kiyoshi, MATSUNAMI Toshinori, FUKUSHI Keiko, MAESHIMA Masayoshi, OKADA Masumi, Japanese Society of Plant PhysiologistsPlant Cell Physiol., 49, (9) 1294 - 1305,   2008年09月01日, The role of root temperature TR in regulating the water-uptake capability of rice roots and the possible relationship with aquaporins were investigated. The root hydraulic conductivity Lpr decreased with decreasing TR in a measured temperature range between 10°C and 35°C. A single break point (TRC = 15°C) was detected in the Arrhenius plot for steady-state Lpr. The temperature dependency of Lpr represented by activation energy was low (28 kJ mol-1) above TRC, but the value is slightly higher than that for the water viscosity. Addition of an aquaporin inhibitor, HgCl2, into root medium reduced osmotic exudation by 97% at 25°C, signifying that aquaporins play a major role in regulating water uptake. Below TRC, Lp r declined precipitously with decreasing TR (Ea = 204 kJ mol-1). When TR is higher than TRC, the transient time for reaching the steady-state of Lpr after the immediate change in TR (from 25°C) was estimated as 10 min, while it was prolonged up to 2-3 h when TR < TRC. The Lpr was completely recovered to the initial levels when TR was returned back to 25°C. Immunoblot analysis using specific antibodies for the major aquaporin members of PIPs and TIPs in rice roots revealed that there were no significant changes in the abundance of aquaporins during 5 h of low temperature treatment. Considering this result and the significant inhibition of water-uptake by the aquaporin inhibitor, we hypothesize that the decrease in Lpr when TR < TRC was regulated by the activity of aquaporins rather than their abundance. © The Author 2008. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved.
  • Growth-induced water potential in leaves and stems of tomato plants and citrus trees grown in hydroponic culture.
    International Society for Horticultural ScienceActa Horticulturae, 396,   1995年
  • Silsesquioxane functionalized with methacrylate and amine groups as a crosslinker/co-initiator for the synthesis of hydrogels by visible-light photopolymerization.
    María L. Gómez, Diana P. Fasce, Roberto J J Williams, Rosa Erra-Balsells, M. Kaniz Fatema, Hiroshi Nonami, Elsevier Ltd.Polymer, 49,   2008年08月11日, A silsesquioxane bearing methacrylate and amine groups was synthesized by reacting half of the NH groups of N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyl]ethylene diamine with glycidyl methacrylate, followed by the hydrolytic condensation of methoxysilane groups. This led to a water-soluble silsesquioxane functionalized with methacrylate and amine groups (SFMA) that was characterized by UV-MALDI TOF MS. A formulation containing safranine-O as sensitizer and SFMA as co-initiator (electron donor)/crosslinker was used for the visible-light photopolymerization of water solutions of 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and acrylamide (AAm). Without SFMA addition no reaction was observed while in the presence of 0.8 wt% SFMA with respect to monomers, crosslinked polymers (hydrogels) were obtained. Swelling of the resulting hydrogels in a broad pH range was investigated. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Salt stress under hydroponic conditions causes changes in cell wall extension during growth.
    International Society for Horticultural ScienceActa Horticulturae, 396,   1995年
  • Physiological diagnosis of tomato plants grown in the hydroponic culture by using image analysis.
    International Society for Horticultural ScienceActa Horticulturae, 399,   1995年
  • Development and optimization of an in vitro chloroplastic protein import assay using recombinant proteins.
    INOUE Hitoshi, RATNAYAKE R.m. Udayangani, NONAMI Hiroshi, NONAMI Hiroshi, AKITA Mitsuru, AKITA Mitsuru, AKITA Mitsuru, Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 46, (5-6) 541 - 549,   2008年05月01日, The in vitro protein import experiment is one of the most important techniques for determining protein localization. For chloroplastic proteins, proteins of interest are incubated with isolated chloroplasts in the presence of energy sources. Radio-labeled proteins synthesized either in vitro or in vivo have been widely used as substrate proteins. Here we report our development of the protein import assay system in which non-radio-labeled proteins, overexpressed in Escherichia coli, were applied. In this system, substrate proteins were designed to carry epitope-tags, thus allowing analysis of imported proteins by SDS-PAGE, followed by immunoblotting to detect these tags. Furthermore, the imported proteins were found to be incorporated into their native form. These observations indicated that recombinant proteins were imported into chloroplasts and folded correctly. Therefore, this assay system could represent another valuable tool for determining protein localization. © 2008 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • 環境ストレス下における組織培養植物体の成長を制御する水ポテンシャル場
    池田 敬, 野並 浩, 橋本 康, 日本生物環境調節学会生物環境調節, 34, (2) 141 - 146,   1996年
  • Direct UV-MALDI-TOF MS Analysis of (Glyco)proteins of Fractions of Bovine Seminal Plasma.
    Alberto S. Cerezo, Silvana L. Giudicessi, Rosa Erra-Balsells, Yasuto Sato, Hiroshi Nonami, Ana C. Marquinez, Carlota Wolfenstein-Todel, Josefina M. De Scacciati Cerezo, Environment Control in Biology, 45, (4) 267 - 290,   2007年12月01日, Bovine seminal plasma was submitted to chromatography on Con A-Sepharose. The "noninteracting", "weakly-interacting" and "strongly-interacting" fractions were analyzed through UV-MALDI-TOF MS together with a subfraction of the "non-interacting" material, using sinapinic acid (SA) as matrix. The spectra were obtained in linear positive mode in the 4.0-90.0 kDa mass/charge range showing peaks in well defined zones, namely: 5.5-8.0 kDa, 10.0-12.0 kDa, 12.5-14.0 kDa (major), 23.2-23.7 kDa, 26.1-27.5 kDa and 38.0-40.0 kDa. High sensitivity spectra showed some very small peaks until 90 kDa. Bovine seminal protein (BSP-A3), acidic seminal fluid protein (aSFP) and PDC-109 glycoproteins (BSP-A1 and BSP-A2) were identified. Caltrin, the human epididymis-specific glycoprotein (HE4), the calcium transport inhibitor protein, the inhibitor of metalloprotease 2 (TIMP-2), osteopontin (OPN) and the prostatic acid protease (PAP) were tentatively identified. The molecular weight of some peaks can be arranged in a sequence from that of BSP-A3 going through the molecular weights of glycoforms (including the known BSP-A1 and BSP-A2) which differ in the amounts of neutral hexoses and sialic acids, composing a BSP-family more extended than previously reported. Another two families could be builded up from proteins of molecular weight of about 12730 and 12750 Da and glycoforms which differ from them also by hexoses and sialic acids. The structures of the deduced O-linked oligosaccharides of the glycoforms are in complete agreement to that determined for the BSP-A1 Oligosaccharide. Small differences in the m. w. of some (glyco)proteins were attributed to genetic polymorphysm. The identification of proteins and O-linked glycoproteins in the "interacting" fractions of the chromatography suggests that the fractionation was not due to specific affinity interactions but to non-specific hydrophobic interactions of the proteins with the hydrophobic pocked of the Con A.
  • The Water Status Measurements Associated with Plant Growth.
    Hiroshi Nonami, Environment Control in Biology, 45, (4) 201 - 214,   2007年12月01日, The process of cell elongation from the viewpoint of plant-water relations and the effect of excision in the zone of elongation on changes in the water status are discussed. The excision effect on changes in water potential was evaluated after measuring turgor before excision and after excision in growing tulip tepals, and it was found that the size of wall relaxation was about 0.04 MPa. In mature tissues, there is no wall relaxation due to excision, and thus, the water status can be cross-checked by using a pressure chamber, a pressure probe and Psychrometers. It was found that water potential of the apoplast is equal to the sum of the matric potential and the osmotic potential of the apoplast solution in the mature tissue. The symplast water potentials of epidermal cells and mesophyll cells were measured with the cell pressure probe, having the same values of water potentials measured with the Psychrometer. Volume-averaged cell turgor and osmotic potentials were similar to the corresponding values measured in tissues with the Psychrometer. In elongating tissues and mature tissues, it was confirmed that water potential can be expressed as the sum of pressure potential and osmotic potential in both the apoplast and symplast.
  • インゲンマメ種子の成熟および発芽過程で現れるβ-N-アセチルヘキソサミニダーゼとキトビアーゼ活性量の変化
    岩本 徹, ハモス A.L., 福山 寿雄, 野並 浩, 日本生物環境調節学会生物環境調節, 35, (1) 1 - 7,   1997年
  • Water relations in tissue-cultured soybean plants.
    Takashi Ikeda, Hiroshi Nonami, Katsu Imai, Environment Control in Biology, 45, (4) 215 - 222,   2007年12月01日, The growth parameters of Lockhart's equation were investigated for finding which component was predominantly contributing to the cell expansion rates of plants subjected to environmental stresses under tissue-culture conditions. Embryos isolated from soybean seeds were grown under tissue-culture conditions. The sizes of the water potential gradient between the water source and elongating cells correlated with the speed of growth rates under nutrient deficiency, salt stress, growth retardation, induced by plant growth regulators and trehalose, indicating that cell expansion rates were mainly associated with how much water could be absorbed by elongating cells regardless of the kinds of environmental stress conditions applied.
  • 水耕養液濃度がウンシュウミカンの水分特性および果実品質の及ぼす影響
    薬師 寺博, 野並 浩, 福山 寿雄, 小野 裕幸, 橋本 康, 日本生物環境調節学会生物環境調節, 35, (2) 117 - 122,   1997年
  • Matrix-assisted ultraviolet laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (UV-MALDI-TOF) mass spectra of N-acylated and N,O-acylated glycosylamines.
    SATO Yasuto, FUKUYAMA Yuko, NONAMI Hiroshi, ERRA−BALSELLS Rosa, STORTZ Carlos A., CEREZO Alberto S., MATULEWICZ Maria C., Carbohydrate Research, 342, (17) 2567 - 2574,   2007年12月10日, Matrix-assisted ultraviolet laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UV-MALDI-TOF-MS) has shown to be a very useful technique for the study of the non-volatile and thermally non-stable N-acylated glycopyranosyl- and glycofuranosyl-amines. Of the several matrices tested, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) was the most effective giving good spectra in the positive-ion mode. In the linear and reflectron modes, the [M+Na]+ ions appeared with high intensity. Their fragmentation patterns were investigated by post-source decay (PSD) UV-MALDI-TOF-MS showing mainly cross-ring cleavages. In addition, N,O-acylated glycopyranosyl- and glycofuranosyl-amines were also analyzed by this technique. PSD UV-MALDI-TOF-MS gave significant signals for several primary fragment ions, which were proposed but not detected, or observed with very low abundance, in electron ionization mass spectrometry (EI-MS) experiments. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • β-Carbolines as matrices for MALDI ToF-MS in positive and negative modes.
    American Society for Mass SpectrometryProceedings of the 46th ASMS Conference on Mass Spectrometry and Allied Topics,   1998年
  • Application of Probe Electrospray Ionization for Biological Sample Measurements.
    Lee Chuin Chen, Zhan Yu, Hiroshi Nonami, Yutaka Hashimoto, Kenzo Hiraoka, 日本生物環境工学会, 47, (2) 73 - 86,   2009年12月01日, Electrospray has been used as one of the most powerful techniques for the analysis of biological samples. Recently, we have developed the probe electrospray (PESI.) (modified version of the conventional electrospray) that uses the fine solid needle. In this method, the probe needle moves up and down along the vertical, axis by a motor-driven system. At the highest position of the probe needle, electrospray is generated by applying a high voltage. In this study, we used PESI directly to the biological samples such as human, milk, bovine milk, beverages, mouse brains, flower petals, plant leaves, bananas, tulip bulbs, etc. Strong ion signals for almost all samples were obtained, The amount of liquid sample picked up by the needle is as small as a few pL or less, making the PESI one of the most promising less-invasive analysis and imaging for biological samples. PESI may be useful as versatile and ready-to-use semi-on line analyses in the fields of agriculture, food science, medicine, pharmaceutical, etc. An example of imaging for mouse brain is demonstrated.
  • Direct Profiling of Phytochemicals in Tulip Tissues and In Vivo Monitoring of the Change of Carbohydrate Content in Tulip Bulbs by Probe Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.
    YU Zhan, YU Zhan, CHEN Lee Chuin, SUZUKI Hiroaki, SUZUKI Hiroaki, ARIYADA Osamu, ERRA−BALSELLS Rosa, NONAMI Hiroshi, HIRAOKA Kenzo, the American Society for Mass SpectrometryJournal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 20, (12) 2304 - 2311,   2009年12月01日, Probe electrospray ionization (PESI) is a recently developed ESI-based ionization technique which generates electrospray from the tip of a solid needle. In this study, we have applied PESI interfaced with a time of flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) for direct profiling of phytochemicals in a section of a tulip bulb in different regions, including basal plate, outer and inner rims of scale, flower bud and foliage leaves. Different parts of tulip petals and leaves have also been investigated. Carbohydrates, amino acids and other phytochemicals were detected. A series of in vivo PESI-MS experiments were carried out on the second outermost scales of four living tulip bulbs to monitoring the change of carbohydrate content during the first week of initial growth. The breakdown of carbohydrates was observed which was in accordance with previous reports achieved by other techniques. This study has indicated that PESI-MS can be used for rapid and direct analysis of phytochemicals in living biological systems with advantages of low sample consumption and little sample preparation. Therefore, PESI-MS can be a new choice for direct analysis/profiling of bioactive compounds or monitoring metabolic changes in living biological systems. © 2009.
  • 細胞計測を用いた植物生長解析
    計測自動制御学会計測と制御, 38, (3) 189 - 196,   1999年
  • Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis of oligosaccharides and oligosaccharide alditols obtained by hydrolysis of agaroses and carrageenans, two important types of red seaweed polysaccharides.
    FATEMA M.kaniz, NONAMI Hiroshi, DUCATTI Diogo R.B., GONCALVES Alan G., DUARTE M. Eugenia R., NOSEDA Miguel D., CEREZO Alberto S., ERRA−BALSELLS Rosa, MATULEWICZ Maria C., Carbohydrate Research, 345, (2) 275 - 283,   2010年01月26日, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analyses of several oligosaccharides (aldoses) and oligosaccharide alditols derived from agaroses, kappa- and iota-carrageenans using different matrices (2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, nor-harmane, ferulic acid, and the ionic liquid matrices 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid-n-butylamine and ferulic acid-n-butylamine) were conducted. These carbohydrates were selected as model compounds to study the MALDI prompt and post-source decay (PSD) fragmentation processes of both families of oligosaccharides. Sulfated alditols showed in the negative-ion mode the molecular ion as [M-Na]- together with the species yielded by their prompt fragmentation (mainly desulfation) while the sulfated oligosaccharides (aldoses) showed mainly glycosidic prompt fragmentation (glycosidic C-cleavages and desulfation). Non-sulfated aldoses and alditols, which could only be analyzed in positive-ion mode ([M+Na]+), did not suffer any prompt fragmentation. The former yielded cross-ring fragmentation in the PSD mode. Best results were obtained by using 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and/or nor-harmane as matrices for all the compounds studied. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • カンキツの不定胚形成における内生オーキシンの影響
    池田 敬, 児島 清秀, 薬師寺 博, 小林 省蔵, 野並 浩, 園芸学会園芸学会雑誌, 69, (2) 221 - 223,   2000年
  • Lipase-catalyzed synthesis and characterization of a novel linear polyamidoamine oligomer.
    MONSALVE Leandro N., KANIZ FATEMA M., NONAMI Hiroshi, ERRA−BALSELLS Rosa, BALDESSARI Alicia, Polymer, 51, (14) 2998 - 3005,   2010年06月01日, A linear polyamidoamine oligomer was obtained by polymerization of ethyl acrylate and N-methyl-1,3-diaminopropane, catalyzed by the Candida antarctica lipase. Depending on the reaction conditions such as substrates concentration, solvent and enzyme:substrate ratio, the enzyme catalyzes the polymerization reaction or Michael adducts formation. The polymeric material, characterized by FTIR, 1H and 13C NMR and UV-MALDI-TOF-MS, shows low molecular weight and high monodispersity. The activity showed by C. antarctica lipase in the polymerization reaction is highly selective and allows to obtain a product with potential biomedical applications in mild condition reactions and low environmental impact. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
  • Role of trehalose in cut flowers of bulbous plants at growth and senescence stages.
    Cryobiology and Cryotechnology, 46, (2) 50 - 56,   2000年
  • Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid (EDTA) as an Auxiliary Tool in the Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Native and Derivatized b-Cyclodextrins, Maltoses, and Fructans Contaminated with Ca and/or Mg.
    GIUDICESSI Silvana L., FATEMA M. Kaniz, NONAMI Hiroshi, ERRA−BALSELLS Rosa, the American Society for Mass SpectrometryJournal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 21, (9) 1526 - 1529,   2010年09月01日, The effect of Ca2+ (and Mg2+) and the disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), a well known Ca2+ (and Mg2+) chelating agent, on the volatilization/ionization of carbohydrates by using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry has been studied. Model compounds such as maltoses (maltose to maltoheptaose), β-cyclodextrins (β-cyclodextrin, methyl-β-cyclodextrin, heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin, heptakis(2,3,6-tri-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin, and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin) and fructans (sucrose, 1-ketose, nystose, and 1F-fructofuranosylnystose) were used. © 2010.
  • 作物の水分生理に関する土,根,葉,茎における計測
    野並 浩, 日本作物学会日本作物学会紀事, 70, (2) 151 - 163,   2001年
  • Real-time reaction monitoring by probe electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.
    YU Zhan, YU Zhan, CHEN Lee Chuin, ERRA‐BALSELLS Rosa, NONAMI Hiroshi, HIRAOKA Kenzo, Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 24, (11) 1507 - 1513,   2010年06月01日, Probe electrospray ionization (PESI) is a modified version of the electrospray ionization (ESI), where the capillary for sampling and spraying is replaced by a solid needle. High tolerance to salts and direct ambient sampling are major advantages of PESI compared with conventional ESI. In this study, PESI-MS was used to monitor some biological and chemical reactions in real-time, such as acid-induced protein denaturation, hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) of peptides, and Schiff base formation. By using PESI-MS, time-resolved mass spectra and ion chromatograms can be obtained reproducibly. Real-time PESI-MS monitoring can give direct and detailed information on each chemical species taking part in reactions, and this is valuable for a better understanding of the whole reaction process and for the optimization of reaction parameters. PESI-MS can be considered as a potential tool for real-time reaction monitoring due to its simplicity in instrumental setup, direct sampling with minimum sample preparation and low sample consumption. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • 植物生体計測に基づく水分生理に関する研究
    野並 浩, 日本生物環境調節学会生物環境調節, 39, (4) 325 - 328,   2001年
  • Diamond, Titanium Dioxide, Titanium Silicon Oxide, and Barium Strontium Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles as Matrixes for Direct Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Carbohydrates in Plant Tissues.
    Yousef Gholipour, Silvana L. Giudicessi, Hiroshi Nonami, Rosa Erra-Balsells, Analytical Chemistry, 82,   2010年07月01日, Nanoparticles (NPs) of diamond, titanium dioxide, titanium silicon oxide, barium strontium titanium oxide, and silver (Ag) were examined for their potential as MALDI matrixes for direct laser desorption/ionization of carbohydrates, especially fructans, from plant tissue. Two sample preparation methods including solvent-assisted and solvent-free (dry) NPs deposition were performed and compared. All examined NPs except for Ag could desorb/ionize standard sucrose and fructans in positive and in negative ion mode. Ag NPs yielded good signals only for nonsalt-doped samples that were measured in the negative ion mode. In the case of in vivo studies, except for Ag, all NPs studied could desorb/ionize carbohydrates from tissue in both the positive and negative ion modes. Furthermore, compared to the results obtained with soluble sugars extracted from plant tissues, fructans with higher molecular weight intact molecular ions could be detected when the plant tissues were directly profiled. The limit of detection (LOD) of fructans and the ratios between signal intensities and fructan concentrations were analyzed. NPs had similar LODs for standard fructan triose (1-kestose) in the positive ion mode and better LODs in the negative ion mode when compared with the common crystalline organic MALDI matrixes used for carbohydrates (2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and nor-harmane) or carbon nanotubes. Solvent-free NP deposition on tissues partially improves the signal acquisition. Although lower signal-to-noise ratio sugar signals were acquired from the tissues when compared to the solvent-assisted method, the reproducibility averaged over all sample was more uniform. © 2010 American Chemical Society.
  • Superposition of the transpiration-induced water potential and the growth-induced water potential associated with expanding tomato leaves.
    Hiroshi Nonami, Hiroshi Nonami, Md Mokter Hossain, Environ. Control Biol., 48, (3) 117 - 125,   2010年12月01日, The growth parameters of Lockhart's equation were determined in expanding leaves of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.) subjected to different relative humidity in the dark. In tomato leaves, sizes of the growth-induced water potential exhibited linear relations with the relative growth rates (RGR) under various vapor pressure difference (VPD) conditions between leaves and the ambient air. When transpiration rates of tomato plants became significantly larger, lines formed between the growth-induced water potential and RGR had a translational relation as VPD increased. Then, the transpiration-induced water potential became proportionally larger as VPD increased. These results indicated that transpiration flux and growth flux have additive relations, suggesting that water fluxes for growth and transpiration are linearly superimposed.
  • Autohydrolysis of a partially cyclized mu/nu-carrageenan and structural elucidation of the oligosaccharides by chemical analysis, NMR spectroscopy and UV-MALDI mass spectrometry.
    Arkivoc 2005, 2005, (12) 319 - 331,   2005年
  • Effects of water flow from the xylem on the growth-induced water potential and the growth-effective turgor associated with enlarging tomato fruit
    Md Mokter Hossain, Hiroshi Nonami, Hiroshi Nonami, Environ. Control Biol., 48, (3) 101 - 116,   2010年12月01日, Intact tomato (Solanum Jycoperslcum L.) fruit growth was monitored while heat-girdling treatment was conducted. Heat-girdling treatments revealed that most water flow into enlarging fruit of tomato plants originated from the xylem throughout fruit growth periods. After measuring the water status and growth rates simultaneously, the growth parameters of Lockhart's equation were determined in expanding fruit of tomato plants. During the early stage of fruit growth, when the growth-induced water potential was obtained by calculating the difference between water potentials of the growing region and the water source, it was found that sizes of the growthinduced water potential and the hydraulic conductance were predominant factors to regulate cell expansion. When fruit became almost mature, sizes of the growth-effective turgor and the wall extensibility were primary factors to regulate cell expansion, but not the water potential gradients. Such changes in water flow from the xylem related to enlarging processes of fruit may explain how fruit cracking takes place right before fruit maturation.
  • Synthesis and polymerization of conveniently substituted 6-amino-6-deoxy-D-galactonic acid derivatives.
    Arkivoc 2005, 2005, (12) 76 - 87,   2005年
  • A matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry approach to the lipid A from Mesorhizobium loti.
    CASABUONO Adriana C., D’ANTUONO Alejandra, SATO Yasuto, NONAMI Hiroshi, UGALDE Rodolfo, LEPEK Viviana, ERRA‐BALSELLS Rosa, COUTO Alicia S., Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 20, (14) 2175 - 2182,   2006年
  • UV-MALDI-TOF MS Analysis of Carbohydrates. Reviewing Comparative Studies Performed Using nor-Harmane and Classical UV-MALDI Matrices.
    ERRA‐BALSELLS Rosa, NONAMI Hiroshi, Environment Control in Biology, 46, (2) 65 - 90,   2008年
  • Sulfoglycosphingolipids are biosynthesized by the intraerythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum
    Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology, 154,   2007年
  • Increased ring-shaped chalkiness and osmotic adjustment in growing rice grains under typhoon/foehn-induced dry wind condition.
    Crop Science, 51,   2011年

書籍等出版物

作品

  • 蒸散状態における葉の伸長と生長に伴った水ポテンシャル場
      1993年
  • 組織培養体における生長に伴った水ポテンシャル場によって誘導される細胞伸長
      1993年
  • ニンジンの不定胚分化過程における細胞の水分生理状態
      1993年
  • Leaf expansion and growth-induced water potential under transpiring conditions
      1993年
  • Cell elongation sustained by growth-induced water potential gradients in tissue-cultured plantlets.
      1993年
  • The cell water status of carrot somatic embryos during differentiation
      1993年
  • 日照不足と台風による早期米品質低下の予測・対策技術の開発
      2008年 - 2008年

受賞

  •   1990年, 日本植物工場学会学術奨励賞
  •   2001年, 日本生物環境調節学会賞
  •   1998年, 三木奨学賞
  •   2006年, 日本生物環境調節学会貢献賞
  •   2006年, 米国園芸学会誌論文賞
  •   2010年, 日本生物環境工学会フェロー

競争的資金



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