研究者総覧

村上 安則 (ムラカミ ヤスノリ)

  • 大学院理工学研究科 環境機能科学専攻 教授
Last Updated :2020/11/10

研究者情報

学位

  • 博士(理学)

J-Global ID

研究キーワード

  • 遺伝子   発生   脊椎動物   進化   脳   

研究分野

  • ライフサイエンス / 形態、構造 / 進化形態学

所属学協会

  • 日本神経科学学会   日本動物学会   

研究活動情報

論文

  • FGF- and SHH-based molecular signals regulate barbel and craniofacial development in catfish.
    Itoyama T, Fukui M, Kawaguchi M, Kaneko S, Sugahara F, Murakami Y, Itoyama T, Fukui M, Kawaguchi M, Kaneko S, Sugahara F, Murakami Y.
    Zoological Leters 5 19 eCollection  2019年06月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌)
  • Masahumi Kawaguchi, Hanako Hagio, Naoyuki Yamamoto, Koji Matsumoto, Kei Nakayama, Yasuhisa Akazome, Hironori Izumi, Yousuke Tsuneoka, Fumikazu Suto, Yasunori Murakami, Hiroyuki Ichijo
    The Journal of comparative neurology 527 4 874 - 900 2019年03月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    Gobiida is a basal subseries of percomorphs in teleost fishes, holding a useful position for comparisons with other orders of Percomorpha as well as other cohort of teleosts. Here, we describe a telencephalic atlas of a Gobiida species Rhinogobius flumineus (Mizuno, Memoirs of the College of Science, University of Kyoto, Series B: Biology, 1960; 27, 3), based on cytoarchitectural observations, combined with analyses of the distribution patterns of neurochemical markers and transcription factors. The telencephalon of R. flumineus shows a number of features distinct from those of other teleosts. Among others, the followings were of special note. (a) The lateral part of dorsal telencephalon (Dl), which is known as a visual center in other teleosts, is composed of as many as seven regions, some of which are conspicuous, circumscribed by cell plates. These subdivisions of the Dl can be differentiated clearly by differential soma size and color with Nissl-staining, and distribution patterns of neural markers. (b) Cell populations continuous with the ventral region of dorsal part of ventral telencephalon (vVd) exhibit extensive dimension. Especially, portion 1 of the central part of ventral telencephalon appears to represent a cell population laterally translocated from the vVd, forming a large cluster of small cells that penetrate deep into the central part of dorsal telencephalon. (c) The magnocellular subdivision of dorsal part of dorsal telencephalon (Ddmg) contains not only large cells but also vglut2a-positive clusters of small cells that cover a wide range of the caudal Ddmg. Such clusters of small cells have not been observed in the Ddmg of other teleosts.
  • Makiko Fukui, Mari Fujita, Shigekazu Tomizuka, Yuta Mashimo, Shota Shimizu, Chow-Yang Lee, Yasunori Murakami, Ryuichiro Machida
    Arthropod Structure and Development 47 1 64 - 73 2018年01月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    The egg structure and outline of the embryonic development of Metallyticus splendidus of one of the basal Mantodea representatives, Metallyticidae, were described in the present study. The results obtained were compared with those from the previous studies, to reconstruct and discuss the groundplan of Mantodea and Dictyoptera. In M. splendidus, the egg is spheroidal, it has a convex ventral side at the center in which numerous micropyles are grouped, and it possesses a conspicuous hatching line in its anterior half. These are the groundplan features of mantodean eggs and the “grouped micropyles in the ventral side of the egg” are regarded as an apomorphic groundplan feature of Dictyoptera. A small circular embryo is formed by a simple concentration of blastoderm cells, which then undergoes embryogenesis of the typical short germ band type. Blastokinesis is of the “non-reversion type” and the embryo keeps its original superficial position and original orientation throughout embryonic development. During the middle stages of development, the embryo undergoes rotation around the egg's anteroposterior axis. These features are a part of the groundplan of Mantodea. It is uncertain whether sharing of the “non-reversion type” of blastokinesis by Mantodea and blaberoidean Blattodea can be regarded as homology or homoplasy.
  • Tatsuya Itoyama, Moe Kawara, Makiko Fukui, Yuki Sugahara, Daisuke Kurokawa, Masahumi Kawaguchi, Shin-Ichi Kitamura, Kei Nakayama, Yasunori Murakami
    MARINE POLLUTION BULLETIN 124 2 792 - 797 2017年11月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    Pyrene, a member of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), contributes to abnormality in the size of the brain and the swimming behavior of pufferfish (Takifugu niphobles) larvae. We hypothesized that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) may mediate pyrene-induced toxic effects because AHR is assumed to be a candidate for the downstream target of PAHs in many cases. To identify the contribution of AHR on developing pufferfish, we performed exposure experiments using P-naphthoflavone, an agonist of AHR We found that the toxic effects of pyrene and p-naphthoflavone in pufferfish larvae are fundamentally different. Pyrene specifically induced problems in the developing midbrain and in swimming behavior, while p-naphthoflavone affected the heartbeat rate and the size of the yolk. These results suggest that the behavioral and morphological abnormality caused by pyrene exposure is mediated by an AHR-independent pathway. Alternatively, defects caused by pyrene may be attributed to the inhibition of the FGF signal. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Koichi Kawakami, Yasunori Murakami
    DEVELOPMENT GROWTH & DIFFERENTIATION 59 4 160 - 162 2017年05月 [査読有り]
  • Masahiko Hibi, Koji Matsuda, Miki Takeuchi, Takashi Shimizu, Yasunori Murakami
    DEVELOPMENT GROWTH & DIFFERENTIATION 59 4 228 - 243 2017年05月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    The cerebellum is derived from the dorsal part of the anterior-most hindbrain. The vertebrate cerebellum contains glutamatergic granule cells (GCs) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) ergic Purkinje cells (PCs). These cerebellar neurons are generated from neuronal progenitors or neural stem cells by mechanisms that are conserved among vertebrates. However, vertebrate cerebella are widely diverse with respect to their gross morphology and neural circuits. The cerebellum of cyclostomes, the basal vertebrates, has a negligible structure. Cartilaginous fishes have a cerebellum containing GCs, PCs, and deep cerebellar nuclei (DCNs), which include projection neurons. Ray-finned fish lack DCNs but have projection neurons termed eurydendroid cells (ECs) in the vicinity of the PCs. Among ray-finned fishes, the cerebellum of teleost zebrafish has a simple lobular structure, whereas that of weakly electric mormyrid fish is large and foliated. Amniotes, which include mammals, independently evolved a large, foliated cerebellum, which contains massive numbers of GCs and has functional connections with the dorsal telencephalon (neocortex). Recent studies of cyclostomes and cartilaginous fish suggest that the genetic program for cerebellum development was already encoded in the genome of ancestral vertebrates. In this review, we discuss how alterations of the genetic and cellular programs generated diversity of the cerebellum during evolution.
  • Fumiaki Sugahara, Yasunori Murakami, Juan Pascual-Anaya, Shigeru Kuratani
    DEVELOPMENT GROWTH & DIFFERENTIATION 59 4 163 - 174 2017年05月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    Highly complicated morphologies and sophisticated functions of vertebrate brains have been established through evolution. However, the origin and early evolutionary history of the brain remain elusive, owing to lack of information regarding the brain architecture of extant and fossil species of jawless vertebrates (agnathans). Comparative analyses of the brain of less studied cyclostomes (only extant agnathan group, consisting of lampreys and hagfish) with the well-known sister group of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) are the only tools we have available to illustrate the ancestral architecture of the vertebrate brain. Previous developmental studies had shown that the lamprey lacked well-established brain compartments that are present in gnathostomes, such as the medial ganglionic eminence and the rhombic lip. The most accepted scenario suggested that cyclostomes had fewer compartments than that of the gnathostome brain and that gnathostomes thus evolved by a step-wise addition of innovations on its developmental sequence. However, recent studies have revealed that these compartments are present in hagfish embryos, indicating that these brain regions have been acquired before the split of cyclostomes and gnathostomes. By comparing two cyclostome lineages and gnathostomes, it has become possible to speculate about a more complex ancestral state of the brain, excluding derived traits in either of the lineages. In this review, we summarize recent studies on the brain development of the lamprey and hagfish. Then, we attempt to reconstruct the possible brain architecture of the last common ancestor of vertebrates. Finally, we discuss how the developmental plan of the vertebrate brain has been modified independently in different vertebrate lineages.
  • Kanami Noguchi, Ryota Ishikawa, Masahumi Kawaguchi, Kanako Miyoshi, Takahiko Kawasaki, Tatsumi Hirata, Makiko Fukui, Shigeru Kuratani, Mikiko Tanaka, Yasunori Murakami
    DEVELOPMENT GROWTH & DIFFERENTIATION 59 4 270 - 285 2017年05月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    Paired limbs were acquired in the ancestor of tetrapods and their morphology has been highly diversified in amniotes in relation to the adaptive radiation to the terrestrial environment. These morphological changes may have been induced by modification of the developmental program of the skeletal or muscular system. To complete limb modification, it is also important to change the neuronal framework, because the functions of the limbs rely on neural circuits that involve coordinated movement. Previous studies have shown that class 3 semaphorins (Sema3 semaphorins), which act as repulsive axonal guidance cues, play a crucial role in the formation of the peripheral nerves in mice. Here, we studied the expression pattern of Sema3A orthologues in embryos of developing amniotes, including mouse, chick, soft-shelled turtle, and ocelot gecko. Sema3A transcripts were expressed in restricted mesenchymal parts of the developing limb primordium in all animals studied, and developing spinal nerves appeared to extend through Sema3A-negative regions. These results suggest that a Sema3A-dependent guidance system plays a key role in neuronal circuit formation in amniote limbs. We also found that Sema3A partially overlapped with the distribution of cartilage precursor cells. Based on these results, we propose a model in which axon guidance and skeletogenesis are linked by Sema3A; such mechanisms may underlie functional neuron rearrangement during limb diversification.
  • Fumiaki Sugahara, Juan Pascual-Anaya, Yasuhiro Oisi, Shigehiro Kuraku, Shin-ichi Aota, Noritaka Adachi, Wataru Takagi, Tamami Hirai, Noboru Sato, Yasunori Murakami, Shigeru Kuratani
    Nature 531 7592 97 - 100 2016年03月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    The vertebrate brain is highly complex, but its evolutionary origin remains elusive. Because of the absence of certain developmental domains generally marked by the expression of regulatory genes, the embryonic brain of the lamprey, a jawless vertebrate, had been regarded as representing a less complex, ancestral state of the vertebrate brain. Specifically, the absence of a Hedgehog- and Nkx2.1-positive domain in the lamprey subpallium was thought to be similar to mouse mutants in which the suppression of Nkx2-1 leads to a loss of the medial ganglionic eminence. Here we show that the brain of the inshore hagfish (Eptatretus burgeri), another cyclostome group, develops domains equivalent to the medial ganglionic eminence and rhombic lip, resembling the gnathostome brain. Moreover, further investigation of lamprey larvae revealed that these domains are also present, ruling out the possibility of convergent evolution between hagfish and gnathostomes. Thus, brain regionalization as seen in crown gnathostomes is not an evolutionary innovation of this group, but dates back to the latest vertebrate ancestor before the divergence of cyclostomes and gnathostomes more than 500 million years ago.
  • Tadashi Nomura, Chiaki Ohtaka-Maruyama, Wataru Yamashita, Yoshio Wakamatsu, Yasunori Murakami, Federico Calegari, Kunihiro Suzuki, Hitoshi Gotoh, Katsuhiko Ono
    DEVELOPMENT 143 1 66 - 74 2016年01月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    The amplification of distinct neural stem/progenitor cell subtypes during embryogenesis is essential for the intricate brain structures present in various vertebrate species. For example, in both mammals and birds, proliferative neuronal progenitors transiently appear on the basal side of the ventricular zone of the telencephalon (basal progenitors), where they contribute to the enlargement of the neocortex and its homologous structures. In placental mammals, this proliferative cell population can be subdivided into several groups that include Tbr2(+) intermediate progenitors and basal radial glial cells (bRGs). Here, we report that basal progenitors in the developing avian pallium show unique morphological and molecular characteristics that resemble the characteristics of bRGs, a progenitor population that is abundant in gyrencephalic mammalian neocortex. Manipulation of LGN (Leu-Gly-Asn repeat-enriched protein) and Cdk4/cyclin D1, both essential regulators of neural progenitor dynamics, revealed that basal progenitors and Tbr2(+) cells are distinct cell lineages in the developing avian telencephalon. Furthermore, we identified a small population of subapical mitotic cells in the developing brains of a wide variety of amniotes and amphibians. Our results suggest that unique progenitor subtypes are amplified in mammalian and avian lineages by modifying common mechanisms of neural stem/progenitor regulation during amniote brain evolution.
  • Involvement of Slit-Robo signaling in the development of the posterior commissure and concomitant swimming behavior in Xenopus laevis.
    Tosa Y, Tsukano K, Itoyama T, Fukagawa M, Nii Y, Ishikawa R, Suzuki KT, Fukui M, Kawaguchi M, Murakami Y
    Zoological Lett. 28 eCollection  2015年08月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌)
  • Daichi G. Suzuki, Yasunori Murakami, Yuji Yamazaki, Hiroshi Wada
    EVOLUTION & DEVELOPMENT 17 2 139 - 147 2015年03月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    Image-forming vision is crucial to animals for recognizing objects in their environment. In vertebrates, this type of vision is achieved with paired camera eyes and topographic projection of the optic nerve. Topographic projection is established by an orthogonal gradient of axon guidance molecules, such as Ephs. To explore the evolution of image-forming vision in vertebrates, lampreys, which belong to the basal lineage of vertebrates, are key animals because they show unique dual visual development. In the embryonic and pre-ammocoete larval stage (the primary phase), photoreceptive ocellus-like eyes develop, but there is no retinotectal optic nerve projection. In the late ammocoete larval stage (the secondary phase), the eyes grow and form into camera eyes, and retinotectal projection is newly formed. After metamorphosis, this retinotectal projection in adult lampreys is topographic, similar to that of gnathostomes. In this study, we explored the involvement of Ephs in lamprey dual visual development and establishment of the image-form vision. We found that gnathostome-like orthogonal gradient expression was present in the retina during the secondary phase; i.e., EphB showed a gradient of expression along the dorsoventral axis, while EphC was expressed along the anteroposterior axis. However, no orthogonal gradient expression was observed during the primary phase. These observations suggest that Ephs are likely recruited de novo for the guidance of topographical second optic nerve projection. Transformations during lamprey dual visual development may represent recapitulation from a protochordate-like ancestor to a gnathostome-like vertebrate ancestor.
  • Fumiaki Sugahara, Yasunori Murakami, Shigeru Kuratani
    In Situ Hybridization Methods 263 - 278 2015年02月 [査読有り]
     論文集(書籍)内論文 
    Lampreys represent one of two extant jawless vertebrates (cyclostomes) that diverged from jawed vertebrates over 500 million years ago. They are aquatic inhabitants with elongated, eel-shaped bodies and lack paired fins. Instead of jaws, lampreys possess a disc-shaped oral funnel armored with horny teeth. Their larvae, called ammocoetes, exhibit worm-like morphology without the orbits or the oral funnel. From their unique phylogenetic position with curious morphological and developmental traits, lampreys have been widely regarded as a valuable cyclostome model, especially for the study of early vertebrate evolution. However, the accessibility of lamprey embryos is limited because of the difficulty of artificial breeding in the laboratory, which is also seasonally limited. Moreover, their GC-rich DNA sequences have prevented cloning of some genes, as well as genome projects. In this chapter, we illustrate the handling method for the Japanese lamprey, Lethenteron japonicum , and describe the currently available techniques of whole- mount and section in situ hybridizations. We further provide examples of double staining of in situ hybridization combined with neuronal labeling and immunohistochemistry. These techniques allow us to illuminate not only the lamprey developmental mechanisms but also the early evolution of the vertebrates.
  • Daichi G. Suzuki, Yasunori Murakami, Hector Escriva, Hiroshi Wada
    JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE NEUROLOGY 523 2 251 - 261 2015年02月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    Vertebrates are equipped with so-called camera eyes, which provide them with image-forming vision. Vertebrate image-forming vision evolved independently from that of other animals and is regarded as a key innovation for enhancing predatory ability and ecological success. Evolutionary changes in the neural circuits, particularly the visual center, were central for the acquisition of image-forming vision. However, the evolutionary steps, from protochordates to jaw-less primitive vertebrates and then to jawed vertebrates, remain largely unknown. To bridge this gap, we present the detailed development of retinofugal projections in the lamprey, the neuroarchitecture in amphioxus, and the brain patterning in both animals. Both the lateral eye in larval lamprey and the frontal eye in amphioxus project to a light-detecting visual center in the caudal prosencephalic region marked by Pax6, which possibly represents the ancestral state of the chordate visual system. Our results indicate that the visual system of the larval lamprey represents an evolutionarily primitive state, forming a link from protochordates to vertebrates and providing a new perspective of brain evolution based on developmental mechanisms and neural functions. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:251-261, 2015. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • Yasuhiko Tosa, Ayako Hirao, Ikumi Matsubara, Masahumi Kawaguchi, Makiko Fukui, Shigeru Kuratani, Yasunori Murakami
    DEVELOPMENT GROWTH & DIFFERENTIATION 57 1 40 - 57 2015年01月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    With the exception of that from the olfactory system, the vertebrate sensory information is relayed by the dorsal thalamus (dTh) to be carried to the telencephalon via the thalamo-telencephalic tract. Although the trajectory of the tract from the dTh to the basal telencephalon seems to be highly conserved among amniotes, the axonal terminals vary in each group. In mammals, thalamic axons project onto the neocortex, whereas they project onto the dorsal pallium and the dorsal ventricular ridge (DVR) in reptiles and birds. To ascertain the evolutionary development of the thalamo-telencephalic connection in amniotes, we focused on reptiles. Using the Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis), we studied the developmental course of the thalamic axons projecting onto the DVR. We found, during the developmental period when the thalamo-DVR connection forms, that transcripts of axon guidance molecules, including EphA4 and Slit2, were expressed in the diencephalon, similar to the mouse embryo. These results suggest that the basic mechanisms responsible for the formation of the thalamo-telencephalic tract are shared across amniote lineages. Conversely, there was a characteristic difference in the expression patterns of Slit2, Netrin1, and EphrinA5 in the telencephalon between synapsid (mammalian) and diapsid (reptilian and avian) lineages. This indicates that changes in the expression domains of axon guidance molecules may modify the thalamic axon projection and lead to the diversity of neuronal circuits in amniotes.
  • Midori Iida, Su-Min Bak, Yasunori Murakami, Eun-Young Kim, Hisato Iwata
    AQUATIC TOXICOLOGY 154 39 - 47 2014年09月 研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    The toxicity of dioxins such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is mainly mediated by an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), which regulates the transcription of multiple target genes including cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A). Our pervious study identified the presence of TCDD-induced defects of peripheral nerve projection in red seabream (Pagrus major) embryos. However, it remains unclear whether the TCDD-induced peripheral neurotoxicity is mediated by the AHR. To assess the contribution of the red seabream AHR (rsAHR) signaling pathway to the neuronal toxicity, red seabream embryos at 10 h post-fertilization (hpf) were treated for 80 min with TCDD (0, 0.3, 5.3, and 37 nM in seawater) alone or in combination with CH223191 (500 nM in seawater), which is an AHR antagonist. A preliminary in vitro reporter gene assay confirmed that TCDD-induced transcriptional activity via rsAHR1 and rsAHR2 was suppressed by CH223191 treatment in a dose-dependent manner. CYP1A mRNA expression in embryos was determined by 2-step real time quantitative-polymerase chain reaction at 24 and 120 hpf and in situ hybridization at 48, 72, 96 and 120 hpf. The morphology of the peripheral nerve system (PNS) was also microscopically observed by fluorescent staining using an anti-acetylated tubulin antibody at 120 hpf. CYP1A mRNA expression was dose-dependently induced by TCDD at all of the examined developing stages. The suppression of TCDD-induced CYP1A expression by CH223191 treatment was observed in embryos at 24 and 48 hpf, while the effect of the rsAHR antagonist disappeared at 96 and 120 hpf. This phenomenon indicated the transient suppression of TCDD-induced rsAHR activation by CH223191 treatment. The immunostaining of peripheral nerves at 120 hpf demonstrated that the projections of the craniofacial nerve were altered in TCDD-treated embryos, and the frequency of TCDD-induced abnormal projections was not prevented by co-treatment with CH223191. These results indicate that the transient suppression of TCDD-induced rsAHR activation during the early developing stages of the red seabream does not influence the abnormal projection of peripheral nerves. In conclusion, transient rsAHR activation in the early stages of development is not involved in the neurotoxicity. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Tadashi Nomura, Yasunori Murakami, Hitoshi Gotoh, Katsuhiko Ono
    NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH 86 25 - 36 2014年09月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    There is huge divergence in the size and complexity of vertebrate brains. Notably, mammals and birds have bigger brains than other vertebrates, largely because these animal groups established larger dorsal telencephali. Fossil evidence suggests that this anatomical trait could have evolved independently. However, recent comparative developmental analyses demonstrate surprising commonalities in neuronal subtypes among species, although this interpretation is highly controversial. In this review, we introduce intriguing evidence regarding brain evolution collected from recent studies in paleontology and developmental biology, and we discuss possible evolutionary changes in the cortical developmental programs that led to the encephalization and structural complexity of amniote brains. New research concepts and approaches will shed light on the origin and evolutionary processes of amniote brains, particularly the mammalian cerebral cortex. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).
  • Yuki Sugahara, Masahumi Kawaguchi, Tatsuya Itoyama, Daisuke Kurokawa, Yasuhiko Tosa, Shin-Ichi Kitamura, Itsuki C. Handoh, Kei Nakayama, Yasunori Murakami
    MARINE POLLUTION BULLETIN 85 2 479 - 486 2014年08月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    Spills of heavy oil (HO) have an adverse effect on marine life. We have demonstrated previously that exposure to HO by fertilized eggs of the pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes) induces neural disruption and behavioral abnormality in early-hatched larvae. Here, two kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pyrene and phenanthrene, were selected to examine their toxic effects on larval behavior of another pufferfish species (T. niphobles). Larvae exposed to pyrene or phenanthrene exhibited no abnormalities in morphology. However, those exposed to pyrene but not phenanthrene swam in an uncoordinated manner, although their swimming distance and speed were normal. The optic tectum, a part of the midbrain, of pyrene-exposed larvae did not grow to full size. Thus, these findings are indicated that pyrene might be a contributor to the behavioral and neuro-developmental toxicity, although there is no indication that it is the only compound participating in the toxicity of the heavy oil mixture. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Fumiaki Sugahara, Yasunori Murakami, Noritaka Adachi, Shigeru Kuratani
    Current Opinion in Genetics and Development 23 4 475 - 483 2013年08月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    The telencephalon, the most anterior part of the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS), is a highly diversified region of the vertebrate body. Its evolutionary origin remains elusive, especially with regard to the ancestral state of its architecture as well as the origin of telencephalon-specific neuron subtypes. Cyclostomes (lampreys and hagfish), the sister group of the gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates), serve as valuable models for studying the evolution of the vertebrate CNS. Here, we summarize recent studies on the development of the telencephalon in the lamprey. By comparing detailed developmental studies in mammals, we illustrate a possible ancestral developmental plan underlying the diversification of the vertebrate telencephalon and propose possible approaches for understanding the early evolution of the telencephalon. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
  • Muriel Rhinn, Kanako Miyoshi, Aki Watanabe, Masahumi Kawaguchi, Fumihiro Ito, Shigeru Kuratani, Clare V.H. Baker, Yasunori Murakami, Filippo M. Rijli
    Journal of Comparative Neurology 521 6 1378 - 1394 2013年04月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    The trigeminal circuit relays somatosensory input from the face into the central nervous system. In central nuclei, the spatial arrangement of neurons reproduces the physical distribution of peripheral receptors, thus generating a somatotopic facial map during development. In mice, the ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular trigeminal nerve branches maintain a somatotopic segregation and generate spatially organized patterns of connectivity within hindbrain target nuclei. To investigate conservation of somatotopic organization, we compared trigeminal nerve organization in turtle, chick, and mouse embryos. We found that, in the turtle, mandibular and maxillary ganglion neuron rostrocaudal segregation and trigeminal tract somatotopy are similar to mouse. In contrast, chick mandibular ganglion neurons are located rostrally to maxillary neurons, with some intermingling, supporting previous observations (Noden [1980], J Comp Neurol 190:429-444). This organization results in an inversion of the relative positions and less precise axonal sorting of the maxillary and mandibular branches within the trigeminal tract, as compared to mouse and turtle. Moreover, using the turtle and chick orthologs of Drg11 in combination with Hoxa2 expression and axonal tracings from the periphery, we mapped the chick PrV nucleus position to rhombomere 1, confirming previous studies (Marin and Puelles [1995], Eur J Neurosci 7:1714-1738) and in contrast to mouse PrV, which mainly maps to rhombomere 2-3 (Oury et al. [2006], Science 313:1408-1413). Thus, somatotopy of trigeminal ganglion and nerve organization is only partially conserved through amniote evolution, possibly in relation to the modification of facial somatosensory structures and morphologies. J. Comp. Neurol. 1378-1394, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • Tadashi Nomura, Masahumi Kawaguchi, Katsuhiko Ono, Yasunori Murakami
    JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL ZOOLOGY PART B-MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL EVOLUTION 320B 2 57 - 73 2013年03月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    Vertebrate brains exhibit vast amounts of anatomical diversity. In particular, the elaborate and complex nervous system of amniotes is correlated with the size of their behavioral repertoire. However, the evolutionary mechanisms underlying species-specific brain morphogenesis remain elusive. In this review we introduce reptiles as a new model organism for understanding brain evolution. These animal groups inherited ancestral traits of brain architectures. We will describe several unique aspects of the reptilian nervous system with a special focus on the telencephalon, and discuss the genetic mechanisms underlying reptile-specific brain morphology. The establishment of experimental evo-devo approaches to studying reptiles will help to shed light on the origin of the amniote brains. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 320B:5773, 2013. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • Midori Iida, Eun-Young Kim, Yasunori Murakami, Yasuhiro Shima, Hisato Iwata
    AQUATIC TOXICOLOGY 128 193 - 202 2013年03月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    We investigated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced effects on the morphology of peripheral nervous system (PNS) in the developing red seabream (Pagrus major) embryos. The embryos at 10 h post-fertilization (hpf) were treated with 0, 0.1, 0.4 or 1.7 mu g/L of TCDD in seawater for 80 min. The morphology of PNS was microscopically observed with florescence staining using an anti-acetylated tubulin antibody at 48, 78, 120 and 136 hpf. Axon length of facial nerve (VII) was found to be shortened by TCDD exposure. Axon guidance in the glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) and vagus nerve (X) was altered at 120 and 136 hpf in a TCDD dose-dependent manner. Lowest observable effect level of TCDD (0.1 mu g/L) that induced the morphological alteration of PNS was lower than those of other endpoints on morphological deformities so far reported. Given that the growth cone at the tip of growing nerve axons advances under the influence of its surrounding tissues, we hypothesized that TCDD exposure would affect (1) the nerve cell proliferation/differentiation, (2) the structure of muscle as an axon target and (3) the nerve guidance factor in the embryos. By the immunostaining of embryos with an antibody against the neuronal specific RNA-binding protein, HuD, and an antibody against the sarcomeric myosin, no morphological effects were observed on the neural proliferation/differentiation and the structure of facial muscles of TCDD-treated embryos. In contrast, whole mount in situ hybridization of semaphorin 3A (Sema3A), a secretory axon repulsion factor, revealed the altered expression pattern of its transcripts in TCDD-treated embryos. Our findings suggest that TCDD treatment affects the projection of PNS in the developing red seabream embryos through the effects on the axonal growth cone guidance molecule such as Sema3A, but not On the neuronal differentiation/proliferation and axon target. The PNS in developing embryos may be one of the most sensitive biomarkers to the exposure of dioxin-like compounds. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Nathalie Feiner, Yasunori Murakami, Lisa Breithut, Sylvie Mazan, Axel Meyer, Shigehiro Kuraku
    Genome biology and evolution 5 8 1485 - 502 2013年 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    The ectodermal neural cortex (ENC) gene family, whose members are implicated in neurogenesis, is part of the kelch repeat superfamily. To date, ENC genes have been identified only in osteichthyans, although other kelch repeat-containing genes are prevalent throughout bilaterians. The lack of elaborate molecular phylogenetic analysis with exhaustive taxon sampling has obscured the possible link of the establishment of this gene family with vertebrate novelties. In this study, we identified ENC homologs in diverse vertebrates by means of database mining and polymerase chain reaction screens. Our analysis revealed that the ENC3 ortholog was lost in the basal eutherian lineage through single-gene deletion and that the triplication between ENC1, -2, and -3 occurred early in vertebrate evolution. Including our original data on the catshark and the zebrafish, our comparison revealed high conservation of the pleiotropic expression pattern of ENC1 and shuffling of expression domains between ENC1, -2, and -3. Compared with many other gene families including developmental key regulators, the ENC gene family is unique in that conventional molecular phylogenetic inference could identify no obvious invertebrate ortholog. This suggests a composite nature of the vertebrate-specific gene repertoire, consisting not only of de novo genes introduced at the vertebrate origin but also of long-standing genes with no apparent invertebrate orthologs. Some of the latter, including the ENC gene family, may be too rapidly evolving to provide sufficient phylogenetic signals marking orthology to their invertebrate counterparts. Such gene families that experienced saltatory evolution likely remain to be explored and might also have contributed to phenotypic evolution of vertebrates.
  • Yoshinobu Uno, Chizuko Nishida, Hiroshi Tarui, Satoshi Ishishita, Chiyo Takagi, Osamu Nishimura, Junko Ishijima, Hidetoshi Ota, Ayumi Kosaka, Kazumi Matsubara, Yasunori Murakami, Shigeru Kuratani, Naoto Ueno, Kiyokazu Agata, Yoichi Matsuda
    PLOS ONE 7 12 e53027  2012年12月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    Comparative genome analysis of non-avian reptiles and amphibians provides important clues about the process of genome evolution in tetrapods. However, there is still only limited information available on the genome structures of these organisms. Consequently, the protokaryotypes of amniotes and tetrapods and the evolutionary processes of microchromosomes in tetrapods remain poorly understood. We constructed chromosome maps of functional genes for the Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis), the Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis), and the Western clawed frog (Xenopus tropicalis) and compared them with genome and/or chromosome maps of other tetrapod species (salamander, lizard, snake, chicken, and human). This is the first report on the protokaryotypes of amniotes and tetrapods and the evolutionary processes of microchromosomes inferred from comparative genomic analysis of vertebrates, which cover all major non-avian reptilian taxa (Squamata, Crocodilia, Testudines). The eight largest macrochromosomes of the turtle and chicken were equivalent, and 11 linkage groups had also remained intact in the crocodile. Linkage groups of the chicken macrochromosomes were also highly conserved in X. tropicalis, two squamates, and the salamander, but not in human. Chicken microchromosomal linkages were conserved in the squamates, which have fewer microchromosomes than chicken, and also in Xenopus and the salamander, which both lack microchromosomes; in the latter, the chicken microchromosomal segments have been integrated into macrochromosomes. Our present findings open up the possibility that the ancestral amniotes and tetrapods had at least 10 large genetic linkage groups and many microchromosomes, which corresponded to the chicken macro-and microchromosomes, respectively. The turtle and chicken might retain the microchromosomes of the amniote protokaryotype almost intact. The decrease in number and/or disappearance of microchromosomes by repeated chromosomal fusions probably occurred independently in the amphibian, squamate, crocodilian, and mammalian lineages.
  • Masahumi Kawaguchi, Yuki Sugahara, Tomoe Watanabe, Kouta Irie, Minoru Ishida, Daisuke Kurokawa, Shin-Ichi Kitamura, Hiromi Takata, Itsuki C. Handoh, Kei Nakayama, Yasunori Murakami
    ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH 19 7 2488 - 2497 2012年08月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    Spills of heavy oil (HO) over the oceans have been proven to have an adverse effect on marine life. It has been hypothesized that exposure of early larvae of sinking eggs to HO leads largely to normal morphology, whereas abnormal organization of the developing neural scaffold is likely to be found. HO-induced disruption of the nervous system, which controls animal behavior, may in turn cause abnormalities in the swimming behavior of hatched larvae. To clarify the toxicological effects of HO, we performed exposure experiments and morphological and behavioral analyses in pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes) larvae. Fertilized eggs of pufferfish were exposed to 50 mg/L of HO for 8 days and transferred to fresh seawater before hatching. The hatched larvae were observed for their swimming behavior, morphological appearance, and construction of muscles and nervous system. In HO-exposed larvae, we did not detect any anomaly of body morphology. However, they showed an abnormal swimming pattern and disorganized midbrain, a higher center controlling movement. Our results suggest that HO-exposed fishes suffer developmental disorder of the brain that triggers an abnormal swimming behavior and that HO may be selectively toxic to the brain and cause physical disability throughout the life span of these fishes.
  • Jun-Young Song, Sho Ohta, Kei Nakayama, Yasunori Murakami, Shin-Ichi Kitamura
    ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH 19 6 2300 - 2304 2012年07月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    The immunotoxicities of oil and its components on fish immunities have been investigated, but there is little literature on the recovery of the fish from the immune suppression. Therefore, the recovery of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus from an immunosuppressive effect due to heavy oil (HO) exposure was investigated in this study. Fish were exposed to HO at a concentration of 0.385 g/L for 2 days, while control fish received no exposure. Seven fish were sampled at 0, 3, 7, and 14 days post-exposure. The respiratory rate was measured everyday as an indicator of the acute effect of HO exposure. Fish serum was collected and used for antibacterial activity assay against Edwardsiella tarda. Expression changes of respiratory and immune-related genes were evaluated by real-time PCR. The respiratory rate was significantly increased in the HO-exposed group until 4 days post-exposure. A respiratory-related gene, beta-hemoglobin, was also significantly downregulated in the spleen both at 0 and 7 days post-exposure and kidney at 3 days post-exposure in HO-exposed fish. Immunotoxicity, including suppression of antibacterial activities and downregulation of the IgM gene, was observed in HO-exposed fish until 3 days post-exposure, but not after that time. From these results, we conclude that the fish likely return to normal status around 1 week.
  • Jun-Young Song, Kei Nakayama, Emiko Kokushi, Kazuki Ito, Seiichi Uno, Jiro Koyama, M. Habibur Rahman, Yasunori Murakami, Shin-Ichi Kitamura
    ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY 31 4 828 - 835 2012年04月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    Heavy oil (HO) pollution is one of the most important environmental issues globally. However, little is known about the immunotoxicity of HO in fish. We therefore investigated the effects of HO exposure on immunocompetence and expression of immune-related genes in Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. To test immunocompetency, serum collected from the fish was mixed with Edwardsiella tarda, plated, and the resultant numbers of bacterial colonies were counted. Plates with serum from HO-exposed fish (5 d postexposure [dpe]) had significantly higher numbers of colonies than those of the untreated control group, suggesting that HO exposure suppresses immunocompetency. Downregulation of the immunoglobulin light chain (IgM) gene in HO-exposed fish at 5 dpe was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. These results suggest that IgM-mediated immunity is suppressed by HO exposure. We measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in the liver of the fish. Low molecular weight PAHs were found to be taken up at high concentrations in fish liver; therefore, they are likely the cause of immune suppression in the fish. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2012;31:828835. (c) 2012 SETAC
  • Yasunori Murakami, Mikiko Tanaka
    DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY 355 1 164 - 172 2011年07月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    The evolution and diversification of vertebrate behaviors associated with locomotion depend highly on the functional transformation of paired appendages. Although the evolution of fins into limbs has long been a focus of interest to scientists, the evolution of neural control during this transition has not received much attention. Recent studies have provided significant progress in the understanding of the genetic and developmental bases of the evolution of fin/limb motor circuitry in vertebrates. Here we compare the organization of the motor neurons in the spinal cord of various vertebrates. We also discuss recent advances in our understanding of these events and how they can provide a mechanistic explanation for the evolution of fin/limb motor circuitry in vertebrates. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Fumiaki Sugahara, Shin-ichi Aota, Shigehiro Kuraku, Yasunori Murakami, Yoko Takio-Ogawa, Shigeki Hirano, Shigeru Kuratani
    Development (Cambridge, England) 138 6 1217 - 26 2011年03月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    Dorsoventral (DV) specification is a crucial step for the development of the vertebrate telencephalon. Clarifying the origin of this mechanism will lead to a better understanding of vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) evolution. Based on the lamprey, a sister group of the gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates), we identified three lamprey Hedgehog (Hh) homologues, which are thought to play central signalling roles in telencephalon patterning. However, unlike in gnathostomes, none of these genes, nor Lhx6/7/8, a marker for the migrating interneuron subtype, was expressed in the ventral telencephalon, consistent with the reported absence of the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) in this animal. Homologues of Gsh2, Isl1/2 and Sp8, which are involved in the patterning of the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) of gnathostomes, were expressed in the lamprey subpallium, as in gnathostomes. Hh signalling is necessary for induction of the subpallium identity in the gnathostome telencephalon. When Hh signalling was inhibited, the ventral identity was disrupted in the lamprey, suggesting that prechordal mesoderm-derived Hh signalling might be involved in the DV patterning of the telencephalon. By blocking fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling, the ventral telencephalon was suppressed in the lamprey, as in gnathostomes. We conclude that Hh- and FGF-dependent DV patterning, together with the resultant LGE identity, are likely to have been established in a common ancestor before the divergence of cyclostomes and gnathostomes. Later, gnathostomes would have acquired a novel Hh expression domain corresponding to the MGE, leading to the obtainment of cortical interneurons.
  • Masahumi Kawaguchi, Jun-Young Song, Kouta Irie, Yasunori Murakami, Kei Nakayama, Shin-Ichi Kitamura
    MARINE POLLUTION BULLETIN 63 5-12 356 - 361 2011年 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    It has been well known that oil spills cause serious problems in the aquatic organisms. In particular, some species of teleosts, which develop on the sea surface thought to be affected by heavy oil (HO). During the embryogenesis, the nervous system is constructed. Therefore, it is important to study the toxicological effects of HO on the developing neurons. We exposed HO to eggs of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and investigated the neural disorder. In larvae exposed by HO at the concentration of 8.75 mg/L, the facial and lateral line nerves partially entered into the incorrect region and the bundle was defasciculated. Furthermore, in the HO-exposed larvae, Sema3A, a kind of axon guidance molecule, was broadly expressed in second pharyngeal arch, a target region of facial nerve. Taken together, we suggested the possibility that the abnormal expression of Sema3A affected by HO exposure causes disruption of facial nerve scaffolding. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Kouta Irie, Masahumi Kawaguchi, Kaori Mizuno, Jun-Young Song, Kei Nakayama, Shin-Ichi Kitamura, Yasunori Murakami
    MARINE POLLUTION BULLETIN 63 5-12 297 - 302 2011年 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    Heavy oil (HO) on the sea surface penetrates into fish eggs and prevents the normal morphogenesis. To identify the toxicological effects of HO in the context of the egg types, we performed exposure experiments using floating eggs and sinking eggs. In the course of development, HO-exposed embryos of floating eggs showed abnormal morphology, whereas early larva of the sinking eggs had almost normal morphology. However, the developing peripheral nervous system of sinking eggs showed abnormal projections. These findings suggest that HO exposed fishes have problems in the developing neurons, although they have no morphological malformations. Through these observations, we conclude that HO is strongly toxic to floating eggs in the morphogenesis, and also affect the neuron development in both floating and sinking eggs. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Jun-Young Song, Kei Nakayama, Yasunori Murakami, Shin-Ichi Kitamura
    MARINE POLLUTION BULLETIN 63 5-12 362 - 365 2011年 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    The relationship between chemical exposure and disease outbreak in fish has not been fully defined due to the limitations of experimental systems (model fish and pathogens). Therefore, we constructed a system using the Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, and viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), and evaluated it by heavy oil (HO) exposure. The fish were exposed to HO at 0.3, 0.03, 0.003, and 0 g/L following VHSV infection at doses of 10(2.5) or 10(3.5) tissue culture infectious dose (TCID)(50)/fish. As a result, groups given the dual stressors showed more than 90% mortality. Although VHSV infection at 10(2.5) and 10(3.5) TCID50/fish without HO exposure also induced high mortality, at 68.8% and 81.3%, respectively, HO exposure induced faster and higher mortality in the virus carrier fish, indicating that chemical stressors raise the risk of disease outbreak in fish. The experimental system established in this study could be useful for chemical risk assessment. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Yumie Murata, Mika Tamura, Yusuke Aita, Koji Fujimura, Yasunori Murakami, Masataka Okabe, Norihiro Okada, Mikiko Tanaka
    DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY 347 1 236 - 245 2010年11月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    The pelvic fin position among teleost fishes has shifted rostrally during evolution, resulting in diversification of both behavior and habitat. We explored the developmental basis for the rostral shift in pelvic fin position in teleost fishes using zebrafish (abdominal pelvic fins) and Nile tilapia (thoracic pelvic fins). Cell fate mapping experiments revealed that changes in the distribution of lateral plate mesodermal cells accompany the trunk-tail protrusion. Presumptive pelvic fin cells are originally located at the body wall adjacent to the anterior limit of hoxc10a expression in the spinal cord, and their position shifts rostrally as the trunk grows. We then showed that the differences in pelvic fin position between zebrafish and Nile tilapia were not due to changes in expression or function of gdf11. We also found that hox-independent motoneurons located above the pelvic fills innervate into the pelvic musculature. Our results suggest that there is a common mechanism among teleosts and tetrapods that controls paired appendage positioning via gdf11, but in teleost fishes the position of prospective pelvic fin cells on the yolk surface shifts as the trunk grows. In addition, teleost motoneurons, which lack lateral motor columns, innervate the pelvic fins in a manner independent of the rostral-caudal patterns of hox expression in the spinal cord. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Reha S. Erzurumlu, Yasunori Murakami, Filippo M. Rijli
    NATURE REVIEWS NEUROSCIENCE 11 4 252 - 263 2010年04月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    The facial somatosensory map in the cortex is derived from facial representations that are first established at the brainstem level and then serially 'copied' at each stage of the somatosensory pathway. Recent studies have provided insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of somatotopic maps of the face and whiskers in the trigeminal nuclei of the mouse brainstem. This work has revealed that early molecular regionalization and positional patterning of trigeminal ganglion and brainstem target neurons are established by homeodomain transcription factors, the expression of which is induced and maintained by signals from the brain and face. Such position-dependent information is fundamental in transforming the early spatial layout of sensory receptors into a topographic connectivity map that is conferred to higher brain levels.
  • Yasunori Murakami, Aki Watanabe
    DEVELOPMENT GROWTH & DIFFERENTIATION 51 3 197 - 205 2009年04月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    Vertebrate brains are highly organized structures that show remarkable diversity throughout the animal groups. Among the vertebrates, the agnathan animals, which diverged from the gnathostomes early in the evolution of the vertebrates, occupy a key phylogenetic position in order to clarify the origin and evolution of the brain. We found that the lamprey brain has the basic molecular mechanisms necessary to form brain compartments. Conversely, the telencephalon and cerebellum display gnathostome-specific developmental mechanisms. We also propose that, in contrast to those of gnathostomes, the maxillary ramus of the trigeminal nerve and buccal ramus of the nerve on the anterior lateral line are not fused in the developing lamprey. Thus, the development of the central nervous system and the framework of the peripheral nerve around the oral region are thought to have improved in the course of the agnathan-gnathostome transition.
  • Aki Watanabe, Shigeki Hirano, Yasunori Murakami
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 25 10 1020 - 1027 2008年10月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    Vertebrate brains are highly organized structures that show remarkable diversity throughout animal groups. The agnathans, which diverged from the gnathostomes early in the evolution of the vertebrates, occupy a key phylogenetic position from which to clarify the origin and evolution of the brain. We studied the developing lamprey brain and compared its developmental plan with that of the gnathostomes, in order to reconstruct the evolutionary processes of the vertebrate brain. We found that the lamprey brain has the basic molecular mechanisms necessary to form neuromeric compartments, and that its mesencephalon and diencephalon exhibit conserved morphological and molecular features. Conversely, the telencephalon and metencephalon display lamprey-specific developmental mechanisms. Thus, the molecular program of the nervous system is thought to have improved in the gnathostome lineage. Changes in the expression domains of some regulatory genes might have facilitated the evolution of the vertebrate central nervous system.
  • Atsushi Sogabe, Koji Matsumoto, Mizuki Ohashi, Aki Watanabe, Hiromi Takata, Yasunori Murakami, Koji Omori, Yasunobu Yanagisawa
    BIOLOGY LETTERS 4 4 362 - 365 2008年08月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    Syngnathid fish (pipefish and seahorses) are unique among teleost fish in that their ovary consists of a rolled sheet with germinal ridge(s) on the dorsal side running along the entire length of the sheet. A distinct difference is seen in the ovarian structure between polygamous Syngnathus pipefish and monogamous seahorses (Hippocampus spp.), the former having one germinal ridge and the latter with two ridges. This study examined the ovarian structure and the mode of egg production in a monogamous pipefish Corythoichthys haematopterus. The ovary of C. haematopterus had two germinal ridges like that observed in monogamous seahorses. There were two distinct groups of follicles in the ovary, one being a cohort of extremely small follicles and the other a cohort of follicles developing and increasing in size with the passage of time. We suggest that the ovarian structure and the mode of egg production in this pipefish are adaptations to monogamy.
  • Yasunori Murakami, Shigeru Kuratani
    BRAIN RESEARCH BULLETIN 75 2-4 218 - 224 2008年03月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    Vertebrate brains exhibit remarkable diversity in each animal group, reflecting evolutionary changes at the molecular-level developmental program of the nervous system that vertebrates have experienced. We focused on the developmental morphological plan of the brain to understand the evolutionary scenario that led to the above diversity. By comparing the organization of the brain of non-vertebrate chordates, cyclostomes and gnathostomes, a step-wise modification of brain patterning programs becomes apparent. Furthermore, by labeling the lamprey oral region, the somatotopic projections of the trigeminal nerve that enter into the hindbrain become visible. Finally, by combining the knowledge on rhombomere segments and neuronal projections, the evolutionary relationship between somatotopy and brain segmentation are discussed. (c) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Kei Nakayama, Shin-Ichi Kitamura, Yasunori Murakami, Jun-Young Song, Sung-Ju Jung, Myung-Joo Oh, Hisato Iwata, Shinsuke Tanabe
    MARINE POLLUTION BULLETIN 57 6-12 445 - 452 2008年 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    Heavy oil contamination is one of the most important environmental issues. Toxicities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including immune toxicities, are well characterized, however, the immune toxic effects of heavy oil, as a complex mixture of PAHs, have not been investigated. In the present study, we selected Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) as a model organism, and observed alteration of immune function by the exposure to heavy oil. To analyze the expression profiles of immune system-related genes, we selected 309 cDNAs from our flounder EST library, and spotted them on a glass slide. Using this cDNA array, alteration of gene expression profiles was analyzed in the kidneys of flounders exposed to heavy oil. Six Japanese flounders (mean body weight: 197 g) were acclimated to laboratory conditions at 19-20 degrees C. Three fish were exposed to heavy oil C (bunker C) at a concentration of 3.8 g/L for 3 days, and the others were kept in seawater without heavy oil and used as the control. After the exposure period, the fish were transferred into control seawater and maintained for 4 days, and then they were dissected and their kidneys were removed. Total RNA was extracted from the kidney samples to use in gene expression analyses. The microarray detected alteration of immune system-related genes in the kidneys of heavy oil-exposed flounders, including down-regulation of immunoglobulin light chain, CD45, major histocompatibility complex class II antigens and macrophage colony-stimulating factor precursor, and up-regulation of interleukin-8 and lysozyme. These results suggest that pathogen resistance may be weakened in heavy oil-exposed fish, causing a subsequent bacterial infection, and then proinflammatory genes may be induced as a defensive response against the infection. Additionally, we found candidate genes for use as biomarkers of heavy oil exposure, such as N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 and heat shock cognate 71 kDa proteins. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Jun-Young Song, Kei Nakayama, Yasunori Murakami, Sung-Ju Jung, Myung-Joo Oh, Satoru Matsuoka, Hidemasa Kawakami, Shin-Ichi Kitamura
    MARINE POLLUTION BULLETIN 57 6-12 889 - 894 2008年 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    As basic research for the effect of heavy oil on the fish immune system, in this study, the number of leukocyte was counted in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus, after exposure to heavy oil at a concentration of 30 g/8 L for 3 days. To compare the numbers of bacteria in the skin mucus between oil-exposed and control fish, viable bacteria were enumerated by counting colony forming unit (CFU). Compared with 5.79 +/- 1.88 x 10(7) leukocytes/mL in the controls, the exposed fish demonstrated higher counts, averaging 1.45 +/- 0.45 x 10(8) cells/mL. The bacterial numbers of control fish were 4.27 +/- 3.68 x 10(4) C FU/g, whereas they were 4.58 +/- 1.63 x 10(5) CFU/g in the exposed fish. The results suggest that immune suppression of the fish occurred due to heavy oil stressor, and bacteria could invade in the mucus, resulting in the increasing leukocyte number to prevent infectious disease. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Yasunori Murakami, Shin-Ichi Kitamura, Kei Nakayama, Satoru Matsuoka, Hideo Sakaguchi
    MARINE POLLUTION BULLETIN 57 6-12 524 - 528 2008年 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    It is well known that heavy oil (HO) on the sea surface causes serious problems in the aquatic environment. In particular, some species of teleosts which develop on the sea surface are thought to be affected by the HO which flows out from tankers or coastal industry. However, the toxicological effects of HO are not fully understood. We performed exposure experiments using the Pleuronectiformean fish, spotted halibut (Verasper variegatus), which is an important fishery resource in Japan. In course of the development, HO-exposed embryos showed remarkable delay in developmental processes including somite formation. We further observed abnormal development of the head morphology. Notably, treated embryos had relatively small eyes and craniofacial structures. These findings strongly suggest that HO seriously affects the cell proliferation and differentiation of the embryo. In addition, HO-exposed embryos showed abnormal neuronal development. We also performed the exposure in the larval stage. Treatment of post-hatching larvae with HO resulted in significantly greater mortality compared with controls. Through these observations, we finally conclude that HO is strongly toxic to halibut in their early life stages. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Yoko Takio, Shigehiro Kuraku, Yasunori Murakami, Massimo Pasqualetti, Filippo M Rijli, Yuichi Narita, Shigeru Kuratani, Rie Kusakabe
    Developmental biology 308 2 606 - 20 2007年08月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    The Hox code of jawed vertebrates is characterized by the colinear and rostrocaudally nested expression of Hox genes in pharyngeal arches, hindbrain, somites, and limb/fin buds. To gain insights into the evolutionary path leading to the gnathostome Hox code, we have systematically analyzed the expression pattern of the Hox gene complement in an agnathan species, Lethenteron japonicum (Lj). We have isolated 15 LjHox genes and assigned them to paralogue groups (PG) 1-11, based on their deduced amino acid sequences. LjHox expression during development displayed gnathostome-like spatial patterns with respect to the PG numbers. Specifically, lamprey PG1-3 showed homologous expression patterns in the rostral hindbrain and pharyngeal arches to their gnathostome counterparts. Moreover, PG9-11 genes were expressed specifically in the tailbud, implying its posteriorizing activity as those in gnathostomes. We conclude that these gnathostome-like colinear spatial patterns of LjHox gene expression can be regarded as one of the features already established in the common ancestor of living vertebrates. In contrast, we did not find evidence for temporal colinearity in the onset of LjHox expression. The genomic and developmental characteristics of Hox genes from different chordate species are also compared, focusing on evolution of the complex body plan of vertebrates.
  • Franck Oury, Yasunori Murakami, Jean-Sebastien Renaud, Massimo Pasqualetti, Patrick Charnay, Shu-Yue Ren, Filippo M. Rijli
    SCIENCE 313 5792 1408 - 1413 2006年09月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    In the mouse trigeminal pathway, sensory inputs from distinct facial structures, such as whiskers or lower jaw and lip, are topographically mapped onto the somatosensory cortex through relay stations in the thalamus and hindbrain. In the developing hindbrain, the mechanisms generating such maps remain elusive. We found that in the principal sensory nucleus, the whisker-related map is contributed by rhombomere 3 - derived neurons, whereas the rhombomere 2 - derived progeny supply the lower jaw and lip representation. Moreover, early Hoxa2 expression in neuroepithelium prevents the trigeminal nerve from ectopically projecting to the cerebellum, whereas late expression in the principal sensory nucleus promotes selective arborization of whisker-related afferents and topographic connectivity to the thalamus. Hoxa2 inactivation further results in the absence of whisker-related maps in the postnatal brain. Thus, Hoxa2- and rhombomere 3 - dependent cues determine the whisker area map and are required for the assembly of the whisker-to-barrel somatosensory circuit.
  • T Kijimoto, M Watanabe, K Fujimura, M Nakazawa, Y Murakami, S Kuratani, Y Kohara, T Gojobori, N Okada
    MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND EVOLUTION 22 8 1649 - 1660 2005年08月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    Lake Victoria cichlid fishes are excellent examples of explosive adaptive radiation. Although Lake Victoria cichlids are believed to have arisen during a short period (similar to 14,000 years), they have various species-specific phenotypes. One important phenotype that distinguishes each species is the shape of the jaw, which has diverged to adapt to the wide variety of trophic habitats present in the lake. Here we demonstrate a new approach to investigate the diversification of cichlid jaw morphology at the genetic level by examining differentially expressed genes. We used a DNA chip to compare gene expression levels between closely related cichlid fishes. This analysis indicated that the expression of some genes differed in the larvae of two cichlid species. One such clone encodes anew astacin family metalloproteinase. The expression level of the isolated gene, named cimpl, was analyzed in more detail by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. A significant difference in cimpl expression was observed between two Haplochromis cichlid species during development. Using in situ hybridization, we found that this gene is expressed only in head and gill epithelia. Biochemical analysis showed that cichlid metalloprotemase l (CiMPl) has proteolytic activity, a common attribute of all astacin family proteins. Because some astacin family proteins contribute to morphogenesis in animals, CiMPl is expected to participate in species-specific head morphogenesis in cichlids. This is the first study to demonstrate that differentially expressed genes among cichlids can be identified using a DNA chip.
  • Y Matsuda, C Nishida-Umehara, H Tarui, A Kuroiwa, K Yamada, T Isobe, J Ando, A Fujiwara, Y Hirao, O Nishimura, J Ishijima, A Hayashi, T Saito, T Murakami, Y Murakami, S Kuratani, K Agata
    CHROMOSOME RESEARCH 13 6 601 - 615 2005年08月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    The karyotypes of birds, turtles and snakes are characterized by two distinct chromosomal components, macrochromosomes and microchromosomes. This close karyological relationship between birds and reptiles has long been a topic of speculation among cytogeneticists and evolutionary biologists; however, there is scarcely any evidence for orthology at the molecular level. To define the conserved chromosome synteny among humans, chickens and reptiles and the process of genome evolution in the amniotes, we constructed comparative cytogenetic maps of the Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) and the Japanese four-striped rat snake (Elaphe quadrivirgata) using cDNA clones of reptile functional genes. Homology between the turtle and chicken chromosomes is highly conserved, with the six largest chromosomes being almost equivalent to each other. On the other hand, homology to chicken chromosomes is lower in the snake than in the turtle. Turtle chromosome 6q and snake chromosome 2p represent conserved synteny with the chicken Z chromosome. These results suggest that the avian and turtle genomes have been well conserved during the evolution of the Arcosauria. The avian and snake sex Z chromosomes were derived from different autosomes in a common ancestor, indicating that the causative genes of sex determination may be different between birds and snakes.
  • Y Murakami, K Uchida, FM Rijli, S Kuratani
    DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY 280 2 249 - 259 2005年04月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    In vertebrate evolution, the brain exhibits both conserved and unique morphological features in each animal group. Thus, the molecular program of nervous system development is expected to have experienced various changes through evolution. In this review, we discuss recent data from the agnathan lamprey (jawless vertebrate) together with available information from amphioxus and speculate the sequence of changes during chordate evolution that have been brought into the brain developmental plan to yield the current variety of the gnathostome (jawed vertebrate) brains. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • S Kuratani, Y Murakami, Y Nobusada, R Kusakabe, S Hirano
    JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL ZOOLOGY PART B-MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL EVOLUTION 302B 5 458 - 468 2004年09月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    The vertebrate jaw is a mandibular-arch derivative, and is regarded as the synapomorphy that defines the gnathostomes. Previous studies (Kuratani et al., Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 356:15, 2001; Shigetani et al., Science 296:1319, 2002) have suggested that the oral apparatus of the lamprey is derived from both the mandibular and premandibular regions, and that the jaw has arisen as a secondary narrowing of the oral patterning mechanism into the mandibular-arch domain. The heterotopy theory of jaw evolution states that the lamprey upper lip is a premandibular element, leaving further questions unanswered as to the homology of the trabecula in the lamprey and gnathostomes, and to the morphological nature of the muscles in the upper lip. Using focal injection of vital dyes into the cheek process core of lamprey embryos, we found that the upper lip muscle and trabecula are both derived from mandibular mesoderm. Secondary movement of the muscle primordium is also evident when the expression of the early muscle marker gene, LjMA2, is visualized. A nerve-fiber labeling study revealed that the upper lip muscle-innervating neurons are located in the rostral part of the brain stem, where the trigeminal motor nuclei are not found in gnathostomes. We conclude that the lamprey upper lip is composed of premandibular ectomesenchyme and a lamprey-specific muscle component derived from the mandibular mesoderm innervated by lamprey-specific motoneurons. Furthermore, the lamprey trabecula is most likely equivalent to a mesodermally derived neurocranial element, similar to the parachordal element in gnathostomes, rather than to the neural-crest-derived prechordal element. (C) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • Y Murakami, M Pasqualetti, Y Takio, S Hirano, FM Rijli, S Kuratani
    DEVELOPMENT 131 5 983 - 995 2004年03月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    During development, the vertebrate hindbrain is subdivided along its anteroposterior axis into a series of segmental bulges called rhombomeres. These segments in turn generate a repeated pattern of rhombomere-specific neurons, including reticular and branchiomotor neurons. In amphioxus (Cephalochordata), the sister group of the vertebrates, a bona fide segmented hindbrain is lacking, although the embryonic brain vesicle shows molecular anteroposterior regionalization. Therefore, evaluation of the segmental patterning of the central nervous system of agnathan embryos is relevant to our understanding of the origin of the developmental plan of the vertebrate hindbrain. To investigate the neuronal organization of the hindbrain of the Japanese lamprey, Lethenteron japonicum, we retrogradely labeled the reticulospinal and branchial motoneurons. By combining this analysis with a study of the expression patterns of genes identifying specific rhombomeric territories such as LjKrox20, LjPax6, LjEphC and LjHox3, we found that the reticular neurons in the lamprey hindbrain, including isthmic, bulbar and Mauthner cells, develop in conserved rhombomere-specific positions, similar to those in the zebrafish. By contrast, lamprey trigeminal and facial motor nuclei are not in register with rhombomere boundaries, unlike those of gnathostomes. The trigeminal-facial boundary corresponds to the rostral border of LjHox3 expression in the middle of rhombomere 4. Exogenous application of retinoic acid (RA) induced a rostral shift of both the LjHox3 expression domain and branchiomotor nuclei with no obvious repatterning of rhombomeric segmentation and reticular neurons. Therefore, whereas subtype variations of motoneuron identity along the anteroposterior axis may rely on Hox-dependent positional values, as in gnathostomes, such variations in the lamprey are not constrained by hindbrain segmentation. We hypothesize that the registering of hindbrain segmentation and neuronal patterning may have been acquired through successive and independent stepwise patterning changes during evolution.
  • Katsuhisa Uchida, Yasunori Murakami, Shigehiro Kuraku, Shigeki Hirano, Shigeru Kuratani
    Journal of experimental zoology. Part B, Molecular and developmental evolution 300 1 32 - 47 2003年12月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    In gnathostomes, the adenohypophysis, a component of the hypothalamo-hypophysial complex, is believed to develop through hierarchically organized epigenetic interactions based primarily on the topographical relationships between tissues. From a comparison of developmental processes and gene expression patterns of pituitary-related genes between the agnathan species, lampreys and gnathostomes, we speculate on the evolutionary pathway of the vertebrate adenohypophysis. In the lamprey, this is derived from the nasohypophysial placode (NHP) that develops anterior to the oral ectoderm. The NHP can be identified by the expression of LjPitxA, before actual histogenesis, but it is initially distant from the future hypothalamic region. Subsequently, the NHP expresses both LjFgf8/17 and LjBmp2/4a gene transcripts, and grows caudally to establish a de novo contact with the hypothalamic region by the mid-pharyngula stage. Later, the NHP gives rise to both the adenohypophysis and an unpaired nasal organ. Thus, the topographical relationship between the NHP and the hypothalamic region is established secondarily in the lamprey, unlike gnathostomes in which the equivalent relationship appears early in development. Comparing the developmental pattern of the amphioxus homologue of the adenohypophysis, we hypothesize that a modification of the regulation of the growth factor encoding gene lies behind the evolutionary changes recognized as heterochrony and heterotopy, which leads to the gnathostome hypophysial developmental pattern.
  • K Uchida, Y Murakami, S Kuraku, S Hirano, S Kuratani
    JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL ZOOLOGY PART B-MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL EVOLUTION 300B 1 32 - 47 2003年12月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    In gnathostomes, the adenohypophysis, a component of the hypothalamo-hypophysial complex, is believed to develop through hierarchically organized epigenetic interactions based primarily on the topographical relationships between tissues. From a comparison of developmental processes and gene expression patterns of pituitary-related genes between the agnathan species, lampreys and gnathostomes, we speculate on the evolutionary pathway of the vertebrate adenohypophysis. In the lamprey, this is derived from the nasohypophysial placode (NHP) that develops anterior to the oral ectoderm. The NHP can be identified by the expression of LjPitxA, before actual histogenesis, but it is initially distant from the future hypothalamic region. Subsequently, the NHP expresses both LjFgf8/17 and LjBmp2/4a gene transcripts, and grows caudally to establish a de novo contact with the hypothalamic region by the mid-pharyngula stage. Later, the NHP gives rise to both the adenohypophysis and an unpaired nasal organ. Thus, the topographical relationship between the NHP and the hypothalamic region is established secondarily in the lamprey, unlike gnathostomes in which the equivalent relationship appears early in development. Comparing the developmental pattern of the amphioxus homologue of the adenohypophysis, we hypothesize that a modification of the regulation of the growth factor encoding gene lies behind the evolutionary changes recognized as heterochrony and heterotopy, which leads to the gnathostome hypophysial developmental pattern. (C) 2003, Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • F Suto, Y Murakami, F Nakamura, Y Goshima, H Fujisawa
    MECHANISMS OF DEVELOPMENT 120 3 385 - 396 2003年03月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    Plexins belonging to the plexin-A subfamily form complexes with neuropilins and propagate signals of class 3 semaphorins into neurons, even though they do not directly bind the semaphorins. In this study, we identified a new member of the plexin-A subfamily in the mice, plexin-A4, and showed that it was expressed in the developing nervous system with a pattern different to that of other members of the plexin-A subfamily (plexin-A1, plexin-A2 and plexin-A3). COS-7 cells coexpressing plexin-A4 with neuropilin-1 were induced to contract by Sema3A, a member of the class 3 semaphorin. Ectopic expression of plexin-A4 in mitral cells that are originally insensitive to Sema3A resulted in the collapse of growth cones in the presence of Sema3A. These results suggest that plexin-A4 plays a role in the propagation of Sema3A activities. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Uchida, K, Murakami, Y, Kuraku, S, Kuratani, S
    Integrative and Comparative Biology 43 6 1003 - 1003 2003年 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌)
  • Shigeru Kuratani, Shigehiro Kuraku, Yasunori Murakami
    Genesis (New York, N.Y. : 2000) 34 3 175 - 83 2002年11月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    Lamprey, the living jawless vertebrate, has been regarded as one of the most primitive groups of vertebrates. The evolutionary phylogenetic position of the lamprey promises to provide hints about the origin of the vertebrate genome as well as the origin of the body plan, a part of which may be written in the genome. Since the lamprey split from the gnathostome lineage early in the history of vertebrates, the shared developmental mechanisms in lampreys and gnathostomes can be regarded as possessed by the hypothetical common ancestor of these animals, whereas the gnathostome-specific developmental mechanisms that are absent from lampreys indicate that they are relatively new, added to the developmental program only after the split of gnathostomes. Thus, the sequential establishment of the gnathostome body plan is inherently related to the history of genomic duplication events. In this review, recent molecular developmental and evolutionary molecular research on the living lampreys are summarized and discussed, taking vertebrate comparative morphology and embryology into consideration.
  • Y Shigetani, F Sugahara, Y Kawakami, Y Murakami, S Hirano, S Kuratani
    SCIENCE 296 5571 1316 - 1319 2002年05月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    Genes involved in Late specification of the mandibular arch, the source of the vertebrate jaw, are expressed with similar patterns in the oral regions of chick and lamprey embryos. However, morphological comparisons indicate that apparently orthologous homeobox genes were expressed in different subdivisions of the ectomesenchyme in the two species. Therefore, the homology and gene expression of the oral region are uncoupled during the transition from agnathan to gnathostome; we conclude that a heterotopic shift of tissue interaction was involved in the evolution of the jaw.
  • Y Murakami, M Ogasawara, P Satoh, F Sugahara, M Myojin, S Hirano, S Kuratani
    BRAIN RESEARCH BULLETIN 57 3-4 271 - 275 2002年02月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    The vertebrate neural tube consists of a series of neuromeres along its anteroposterior axis. Between amphioxus that possesses no neuromeres and gnathostomes, the lamprey occupies a critical position in the phylogeny for the origin of the segmented brain. To clarify the rhombomeric configuration of the Japanese lamprey, Lampetra japonica, we injected rhodamine- and fluorescein-labeled dextrans into the larval spinal cord, and retrogradely labeled the reticulospinal neurons. We also isolated prosomere marker genes from the embryonic cDNA library of L. japonica, and performed in situ hybridization on the embryonic brain. Of the genes examined, LjOtxA, LjPax6, LjPax2/5/8, LjDIx1/6, and LjTTF-1 were expressed in clearly demarcated polygonal domains. In the telencephalon, LjDIx1/d,, LjPax6, and a putative paralogue of LjEmx were expressed in different domains; the LjEmx paralogue was expressed in the dorsal region, and LjDIx1/6 and LjPax6 in a complimentary fashion of the middle part. These expression patterns implied existence of a tripartite configuration of the lamprey telencephalon similar to that in gnathostomes. All these evidences strongly suggest that the segmental and compartmental architecture of the vertebrate brain was already established before the divergence of agnathans and gnathostomes. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Inc.
  • Y Murakami, M Ogasawara, F Sugahara, S Hirano, N Satoh, S Kuratani
    DEVELOPMENT 128 18 3521 - 3531 2001年09月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    The Pax6 gene plays a developmental role in various metazoans as the master regulatory gene for eye patterning. Pax6 is also spatially regulated in particular regions of the neural tube. Because the amphioxus has no neuromeres, an understanding of Pax6 expression in the agnathans is crucial for an insight into the origin of neuromerism in the vertebrates. We have isolated a single cognate cDNA of the Pax6 gene, LjPax6, from a Lampetra japonica cDNA library and observed the pattern of its expression using in situ hybridization. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that LjPax6 occurs as an sister group of gnathostome Pax6. In lamprey embryos, LjPax6 is expressed in the eye, the nasohypophysial plate, the oral ectoderm and the brain. In the central nervous system, LjPax6 is expressed in clearly delineated domains in the hindbrain, midbrain and forebrain. We compared the pattern of LjPax6 expression with that of other brain-specific regulatory genes, including LjOtxA, LjPax2/5/8, LjDLr1/6, LjEmx and LjTTF1 Most of the gene expression domains showed conserved pattern, which reflects the situation in the gnathostomes, conforming partly to the neuromeric patterns proposed for the gnathostomes. We conclude that most of the segmented domains of the vertebrate brain were already established in the ancestor common to all vertebrates. Major evolutionary changes in the vertebrate brain may have involved local restriction of cell lineages, leading to the establishment of neuromeres.
  • M Myojin, T Ueki, F Sugahara, Y Murakami, Y Shigetani, S Aizawa, S Hirano, S Kuratani
    JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL ZOOLOGY 291 1 68 - 84 2001年04月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    Agnathan cognates of vertebrate homeobox genes, Emx and Dir, were isolated from embryonic cDNA of a Japanese marine lamprey, Lampetra japonica. Analyses of amino acid sequences indicated that the DL cognate was closely related to the common ancestor of gnathostome Dlx1 and Dlx6 groups and termed LjDlx1/6. Southern blot analyses could not rule out the possibility that L. japonica possesses more than one paralog for both LjDlx1/6 and LjEmx, the lamprey cognate of Emx. Expression of LjDlx1/6 was regulated spatially as well as developmentally, and its transcripts were mainly found in the craniofacial and pharyngeal mesenchyme and in the forebrain. The expression pattern of LjEmx changed dramatically during embryogenesis; expression was seen initially in the entire neural tube and mesoderm, which were secondarily downregulated, and secondarily in cranial nerve ganglia and in the craniofacial mesenchyme. No Specific expression of LjEmx was seen in the telencephalon. Comparisons of Dlx and Otx gene expression patterns suggested a shared neuromeric pattern of the vertebrate brain. Absence of Emx expression implied that the patterning of the lamprey telencephalon is not based on the tripartite plan that has been presumed in gnathostomes. Expression domains of LjDlx1/6 in the upper lip and of LjEmx in the craniofacial mesenchyme were peculiar features that have not been known in gnathostomes. Such differences in expression pattern may underlie distinct morphogenetic pathway of the mandibular arch between the agnathans and gnathostomes. (C) 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • Y Murakami, F Suto, M Shimizu, T Shinoda, T Kameyama, H Fujisawa
    DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS 220 3 246 - 258 2001年03月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    Plexins comprise a family of transmembrane proteins (the plexin family) which are expressed in nervous tissues. Some plexins have been shown to interact directly with secreted or transmembrane semaphorins, while plexins belonging to the A subfamily are suggested to make complexes with other membrane proteins, neuropilins, and propagate chemorepulsive signals of secreted semaphorins of class 3 into cells or neurons. Despite that much information has been gathered on the plexin-semaphorin interaction, the role of plexins in the nervous system is not well understood. To gain insight into the functions of plexins in the nervous system, we analyzed spatial and temporal expression patterns of three members of the plexin-A subfamily (plexin-A1, -A2, and -A3) in the developing mouse nervous system by in situ hybridization analysis in combination with immunohistochemistry. We show that the three plexins are differentially expressed in sensory receptors or neurons in a developmentally regulated manner, suggesting that a particular plexin or set of plexins is shared by neuronal elements and functions as the receptor for semaphorins to regulate neuronal development. (C) 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • M Shimizu, Y Murakami, F Suto, H Fujisawa
    JOURNAL OF CELL BIOLOGY 148 6 1283 - 1293 2000年03月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    Neuropilin-1 is a type 1 membrane protein with three distinct functions. First, it can mediate cell adhesion via a heterophilic molecular interaction. Second, in neuronal cells, neuropilin-1 binds the class 3 semaphorins, which are neuronal chemorepellents, and plays a role in the directional guidance of axons. Neuropilin-1 is expected to form complexes with the plexinA subfamily members and mediate the semaphorin-elicited inhibitory signals into neurons. Third, in endothelial cells, neuropilin-1 binds a potent endothelial cell mitogen, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)(165), and regulates vessel formation. Though the binding sites in neuropilin-1 for the class 3 semaphorins and VEGF(165) have been analyzed, the sites involved in cell adhesion activity of the molecule have not been identified. In this study, we produced a variety of mutant neuropilin-1s and tested their cell adhesion activity. We showed that the b1 and b2 domains within the extracellular segment of neuropilin-1 were required for the cell adhesion activity, and peptides with an 18-amino acid stretch in the b1 and b2 domains were sufficient to induce the cell adhesion activity In addition, we demonstrated that the cell adhesion ligands for neuropilin-1 were proteins and distributed in embryonic mesenchymal cells but distinct from the class 3 semaphorins, VEGF, or plexins.
  • T Takahashi, A Fournier, F Nakamura, LH Wang, Y Murakami, RG Kalb, H Fujisawa, SM Strittmatter
    CELL 99 1 59 - 69 1999年10月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    Class 1 and 3 semaphorins repulse axons but bind to different cell surface proteins. We find that the two known semaphorin-binding proteins, plexin 1 (Plex 1) and neuropilin-1 (NP-1), form a stable complex. Plex 1 alone does not bind semaphorin-3A (Sema3A), but the NP-1/Plex 1 complex has a higher affinity for Sema3A than does NP-1 alone. While Sema3A binding to NP-1 does not alter nonneuronal cell morphology, Sema3A interaction with NP-1/Plex 1 complexes induces adherent cells to round up. Expression of a dominant-negative Plex 1 in sensory neurons blocks Sema3A-induced growth cone collapse. Sema3A treatment leads to the redistribution of growth cone NP-1 and plexin into clusters. Thus, physiologic Sema3A receptors consist of NP-1/plexin complexes.
  • H Fujisawa, K Ohta, T Kameyama, Y Murakami
    DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE 19 1 101 - 105 1997年01月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    Plexin is a type I membrane protein which was identified in Xenopus nervous system by hybridoma technique. Molecular cloning studies demonstrated that the extracellular segment of the plexin protein possesses three internal repeats of cysteine cluster which are homologous to the cysteine-rich domain of the c-met proto-oncogene protein product. A cell aggregation test revealed that the plexin protein mediated cell adhesion via a homophilic binding mechanism, in the presence of calcium ions. Plexin was expressed in the neuronal elements composing particular neuron circuits in Xenopus CNS and PNS. These findings indicate that plexin is a new member of the Ca2+-dependent cell adhesion molecules, and suggest that the molecule plays an important role in neuronal cell contact and neuron network formation.
  • T Kameyama, Y Murakami, F Suto, A Kawakami, S Takagi, T Hirata, H Fujisawa
    BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS 226 2 524 - 529 1996年09月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    We searched for mouse homologues of the cell adhesion protein plexin which was originally found in Xenopus, and obtained a cDNA encoding a plexin-like protein. We referred to this protein as mouse plexin 1. The overall amino acid identity between mouse plexin 1 and Xenopus plexin was 84%. As in the Xenopus plexin, the extracellular segment of mouse plexin 1 protein possessed three cysteine-rich domains which showed significant homology with the cysteine-rich domain of the c-Met proto-oncogene protein product (c-Met protein) and Met-like receptor protein tyrosine kinases. Northern blot analysis indicated that mouse plexin 1 was predominantly expressed in the brain. (C) 1996 Academic Press, Inc.
  • T Kameyama, Y Murakami, F Suto, A Kawakami, S Takagi, T Hirata, H Fujisawa
    BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS 226 2 396 - 402 1996年09月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    By screening of E17.5 mouse brain cDNA libraries, we isolated two cDNAs encoding new plexin-like proteins. Sequencing revealed that these two proteins were type 1 membrane proteins which showed over 60% identity at the amino acid level to mouse plexin 1. Moreover, putative extracellular segments of these two proteins had three repeats of a cysteine-rich domain which is a common motif for plexin proteins. Thus, we named these two proteins mouse plexin 2 and mouse plexin 3. We obtained mouse plexin 3 cDNA clones in which a part of protein-coding region was deleted. Also, Northern blot analysis showed molecular heterogeneity in mouse plexin 2 mRNAs. These findings indicate that, in the mouse, plexins comprise a molecular family (the plexin family). (C) 1996 Academic Press, Inc.
  • Y Kato, Y Watanabe, Y Sagara, Y Murakami, M Sugiyama, T Matsuoka
    JOURNAL OF PHOTOCHEMISTRY AND PHOTOBIOLOGY B-BIOLOGY 34 1 29 - 33 1996年06月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    The quinone pigment blepharismin isolated from Blepharisma, which is believed to be a photoreceptor pigment mediating photobehaviour (P. Scevoli, F. Bisi, G. Colombetti, F. Ghetti, F. Lenci and V. Passarelli, Photomotile responses of Blepharisma japonicum. I. Action spectra determination and time-resolved fluorescence of photoreceptor pigments, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biol., I (1987) 75-84; T. Matsuoka, S. Matsuoka, Y. Yamaoka, T. Kuriu, Y. Watanabe, M. Takayanagi, Y. Kato and K. Taneda, Action spectra for step-up photophobic response in Blepharisma, J. Protozool., 39 (1992) 498-502), killed mammalian cells (L cells) when activated by light. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy demonstrated that light-activated blepharismin generated hydroxyl radicals ((OH)-O-.). Light-activated blepharismin pigment promoted lipid peroxidation of L cells, which was partially suppressed in the presence of the singlet oxygen quencher sodium azide (NaN3). The results suggest that the photodynamic action of blepharismin is correlated with lipid peroxidation which may be caused by hydroxyl radicals and/or singlet oxygen (O-1(2)) produced via reactions sensitized by the pigment.
  • K OHTA, A MIZUTANI, A KAWAKAMI, Y MURAKAMI, Y KASUYA, S TAKAGI, H TANAKA, H FUJISAWA
    NEURON 14 6 1189 - 1199 1995年06月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    Plexin (previously referred to as B2) is a neuronal cell surface molecule that has been identified in Xenopus. cDNA cloning reveals that plexin has no homology to known neuronal cell surface molecules but possesses, in its extracellular segment, three internal repeats of cysteine clusters that are homologous to the cysteine-rich domain of the c-met proto-oncogene protein product, The exogenous plexin proteins expressed on the surfaces of L cells by cDNA transfection mediate cell adhesion via a homophilic binding mechanism, under the presence of calcium ions. Plexin is expressed in the receptors and neurons of particular sensory systems. These findings indicate that plexin is a novel calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecule and suggest its involvement in specific neuronal cell interaction and/or contact.
  • T MATSUOKA, Y MURAKAMI, Y KATO
    PHOTOCHEMISTRY AND PHOTOBIOLOGY 57 6 1042 - 1047 1993年06月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    The ciliated protozoan, Blepharisma, shows an avoidance reaction (step-up photophobic response) in response to light stimulation. A profile of a gel-permeation of a crude detergent-solubilized sample of the cells resulted in several red-colored fractions. Among these blepharismin-containing fractions, the fractions III-V did not contain amino acids. The peak of fraction II monitored by 580 nm absorbance was much smaller. A prominent peak appeared in fraction I, which contained a large amount of amino acids. The absorption spectrum of fraction I was well fitted to the action spectrum of the step-up photophobic response, although free pigment (blepharismin) also fitted. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of this fraction resulted in a thicker band corresponding to molecular mass of 200 kDa. These results suggest that the 200 kDa chromoprotein (blepharismin-protein complex) is responsible for the step-up photophobic response in Blepharisma. The absorption spectrum of free chromophore dissociated from the chromophore-protein complex was identical to free red pigment termed blepharismin. The absorption spectrum of the other fractions agreed with that of thin-layer chromatography-purified red pigment, indicating that the pigments contained in these fractions are free pigment dissociated from the chromophore-protein complex.
  • Blue form of Blepharisma photoreceptor caused by light irradiation.
    Y. Murakami, Y. Kato, T. Matsuoka
    Cytobios 73 34 - 98 1993年 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌)
  • T MATSUOKA, Y MURAKAMI, T FURUKOHRI, M ISHIDA, K TANEDA
    PHOTOCHEMISTRY AND PHOTOBIOLOGY 56 3 399 - 402 1992年09月 [査読有り]
     研究論文(学術雑誌) 
    In faded cells of Blepharisma kept in a standard saline solution containing bacteria which had been cultured on agar plates containing glucose and polypepton, threshold light intensity for step-up photophobic response elevated. This result suggests that red pigment (blepharismin) contained in Blepharisma cells is involved in the step-up photophobic response. The pH of the aqueous solution of the red pigment was found to decrease when light was applied, indicating that the pigment releases H+ in response to light stimulation. However, faded pigment preparation by light irradiation did not show pH decrease. In the living cells faded by light irradiation, threshold light intensity for the step-up photophobic response was raised. Results suggest that H+ release from the red pigment induced by light irradiation might be responsible for the step-up photophobic response of the cells.

書籍

  • Clinical Neuroscience 小脳学習説 Marr-Albus-Ito理論の50年
    村上 安則 (担当:共著, 範囲:脊椎動物の小脳の起源と構造)
    中外医学社 2019年08月
  • 日仏生物学会誌第58巻
    村上安則 (担当:共著, 範囲:ストラスブールでの生活)
    日仏生物学会 2018年12月
  • 遺伝子から解き明かす脳の不思議な世界
    村上 安則 (担当:共著, 範囲:1章(分担)、7章、9章(分担)、10章の執筆ならびに全体の編集)
    一色出版 2018年12月
  • 動物学の百科事典
    村上 安則 (担当:共著, 範囲:神経系の発生、脊椎動物の脳)
    丸善出版 2018年09月
  • 脳科学事典
    村上 安則 (担当:その他, 範囲:間脳の発生)
    神経科学会が主催するインターネットサイト 2018年08月
  • Brain evolutin by design
    村上 安則 (担当:共著, 範囲:Chapter 14, The origin of vertebrate brain centers.)
    Springer 2016年
  • 脳の進化形態学
    村上 安則 (担当:単著)
    共立出版 2015年04月
  • 生体の科学 特集 進化と発生からみた生命科学
    村上 安則 (担当:共著, 範囲:脊椎動物の脳神経系の進化)
    医学書院 2015年03月
  • 脳の発生学
    村上 安則 (担当:共著, 範囲:14章 脊椎動物の脳の進化)
    化学同人 2013年06月
  • 生物の科学 遺伝 特集 形態進化のロジックを辿る
    村上 安則 (担当:共著, 範囲:脊椎動物の脳の起源と進化)
    エヌ・ティー・エス 2013年03月
  • 進化学事典
    村上 安則 (担当:共著, 範囲:11. 10 脳と神経 11. 11 脊椎動物の神経系の発生と進化)
    共立出版 2012年04月
  • Interdisciplinary Studies on Environmental Chemistry, Vol. 6, Advanced Environmental Studies by Young Scientist
    村上 安則 (担当:共著, 範囲:Effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on the peripheral nervous system in developing red seabream (Pagrus major) embryos)
    TERRAPUB 2012年
  • 分子精神医学
    村上 安則 (担当:共著, 範囲:神経発生学 三位一体説の誤りと、中枢神経系の進化に関する研究の展開について)
    先端医学社 2011年
  • 劇的に進む脳の解明
    村上 安則 (担当:共著, 範囲:動物にとって異なる脳の形態や脳の進化 環境が脳に与える影響などを調べる)
    アトラス出版 2009年
  • シリーズ21世紀の動物学7神経系の多様性と進化
    村上 安則 (担当:共著, 範囲:脊椎動物の脳のはじまりと進化)
    日本動物学会 2007年
  • 蛋白質核酸酵素
    村上 安則 (担当:共著, 範囲:脊椎動物の脳の進化プロセス ヤツメウナギ分子発生学からのヒント)
    共立出版 2005年
  • 「遺伝子医学」・別冊 分子生物実験シリーズ 図・写真で観る発生・再生実験マニュアル
    村上 安則 (担当:共著, 範囲:神経堤と神経系の標識法-ニワトリ胚を用いた実験- 第Ⅱ章 組織移植と細胞標識編集)
    株式会社メディカルドゥ 2005年
  • 細胞工学「脊椎動物の脳形成プランの起源を探る」
    村上 安則 (担当:共著, 範囲:脊椎動物の脳形成プランの起源を探る The Origin of the Developmental Plan in the Vertebrate Central Nervous System)
    秀潤社 2002年

講演・口頭発表等

  • Yasunori Murakami
    53rd Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists 2020年5月19-22日 2020年05月 口頭発表(招待・特別)
  • 脊椎動物の脳の起源と新規領域の獲得  [招待講演]
    村上安則
    121回日仏生物学会例会 2019年12月 口頭発表(招待・特別)
  • 脊椎動物の脳における新規構造の獲得  [招待講演]
    村上 安則
    日本動物学会 第90回大阪大会 シンポジウム 動物形態のパターン進化:アロモルフォーゼ再考 2019年09月 口頭発表(招待・特別)
  • 脊椎動物の高次中枢の起源  [招待講演]
    村上 安則
    日本進化学会シンポジウム こころの進化の神経基盤 2019年08月 口頭発表(招待・特別)
  • The role of signaling molecules in the evolution of the vertebrate brain  [招待講演]
    村上 安則
    52nd Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists 2019年05月 口頭発表(招待・特別)
  • 鰓弓神経の起源と進化  [招待講演]
    村上 安則
    第124回日本解剖学会シンポジウム 2019年03月 口頭発表(招待・特別)
  • Origin and evolution of the cerebellum  [招待講演]
    村上 安則
    The 75th FUJIHARA Seminar 2018年12月 口頭発表(招待・特別)
  • 円口類の神経発生基盤から解き明かす脳の起源と多様化  [招待講演]
    村上 安則
    日本動物学会 2017年09月 口頭発表(招待・特別)
  • 円口類の遺伝子から解き明かす脊椎動物の脳の起源と多様化  [招待講演]
    村上 安則
    神経解剖懇話会 2017年03月 口頭発表(招待・特別)
  • Origin and diversification of the vertebrate brain  [招待講演]
    村上 安則
    The 10th Annual Meeting for Japanese Developmental Neuroscientists 2017年03月 口頭発表(招待・特別)
  • 脊椎動物の脳の発生と進化に関わる分子基盤  [招待講演]
    村上 安則
    第12回愛媛大学学術フォーラム「脳の不思議に迫る」 2016年09月 口頭発表(招待・特別)
  • 脊椎動物の脳の起源と多様化;円口類と顎口類を用いた進化発生学的研究  [招待講演]
    村上 安則
    日本進化学会 2016年08月 口頭発表(招待・特別)
  • Development of the thalamo-telencephalic projection in reptiles  [招待講演]
    村上 安則
    The 8th World Congress of Herpetology (WCH8) 2016年08月 口頭発表(招待・特別)
  • 脊椎動物の脳の起源と多様化  [通常講演]
    村上 安則
    自治医科大学 大学院特別講義 2015年10月 口頭発表(招待・特別)
  • トラザメ三叉神経感覚枝の後脳への入力;顎の神経支配の進化的変遷  [通常講演]
    村上 安則
    軟骨魚類研究会 2015年06月 口頭発表(招待・特別)
  • 脊椎動物の脳神経系の確立と多様化に関わる分子機構  [通常講演]
    村上 安則
    名古屋大学 生命理学専攻 特別講義 2014年10月 口頭発表(招待・特別)
  • Development of the lamprey central nervous system: with reference to the vertebrate brain evolution.  [通常講演]
    村上 安則
    インドネシア、ガジャマダ大学 特別講義 2014年08月 口頭発表(招待・特別)
  • The role of FGF signaling in the developing lamprey pallium.  [通常講演]
    村上 安則
    日本発生学会第48回大会 シンポジウム2, Vertebrtate brains: structure, function and evolution 口頭発表(招待・特別)

MISC

受賞

  • 2018年07月 日本発生生物学会 DGD奨励賞2018
     Expression patterns of Sema3A in developing amniote limbs: With reference to the diversification of peripheral nerve innervation. 
    受賞者: 野口 佳奈美;石川 遼太
  • 2016年07月 日本発生生物学会 DGD奨励賞2016
     Development of the thalamo-dorsal ventricular ridge tract in the Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis. 
    受賞者: 土佐 靖彦

共同研究・競争的資金等の研究課題

  • 昆虫から解き明かす脳進化研究ユニット
    愛媛大学:リサーチユニット
    研究期間 : 2020年04月 -2023年03月 
    代表者 : 村上安則
  • 脊椎動物の脳における感覚中枢の起源と進化に関わる分子基盤
    独立行政法人日本学術振興会:科学研究費助成事業
    研究期間 : 2020年04月 -2023年03月 
    代表者 : 村上安則
  • 無顎類ヤツメウナギを用いた脊椎動物の脳進化に関する研究
    理化学研究所 生命機能科学研究センター:理化学研究所共同研究
    研究期間 : 2020年04月 -2021年03月 
    代表者 : 村上安則
  • 無顎類ヤツメウナギを用いた脊椎動物の脳進化に関する研究
    理化学研究所共同研究:理化学研究所共同研究
    研究期間 : 2017年04月 -2020年03月 
    代表者 : 村上 安則
  • 脳はどこから来てどこへ行くのか;終脳発生機構の進化的変遷
    日本学術振興会:基盤研究(C)
    研究期間 : 2017年04月 -2020年03月 
    代表者 : 村上 安則
  • ふたつの脳の進化:哺乳類と竜弓類の終脳発生基盤の起源と変遷
    日本学術振興会:基盤研究(C)
    研究期間 : 2014年04月 -2017年03月 
    代表者 : 村上 安則
  • 脊椎動物の発生期に形成される神経回路が担う行動制御:その仕組みと進化
    日本学術振興会 萌芽研究:日本学術振興会 萌芽研究
    研究期間 : 2012年04月 -2014年03月 
    代表者 : 村上 安則
  • 脊椎動物の体性感覚地図の進化に関する分子発生学的研究
    日本学術振興会:若手研究(B)
    研究期間 : 2010年04月 -2012年03月 
    代表者 : 村上 安則
  • 脊椎動物の終脳に関する進化発生学的研究
    日本学術振興会:若手研究(B)
    研究期間 : 2008年04月 -2009年03月 
    代表者 : 村上 安則

社会貢献活動

  • 人間の脳の設計図は5億年前にできた? 脳研究が解き明かす生物の進化
    期間 : 2020年 - 現在
    役割 : 寄稿
    主催者・発行元 : フロムページ
    イベント・番組・新聞雑誌名 : 夢ナビ
  • 脊椎動物の神経系の起源と進化
    期間 : 2019年08月01日 - 2019年08月02日
    役割 : 講師
    主催者・発行元 : 名古屋大学
    イベント・番組・新聞雑誌名 : 特別講義
  • 日本発生生物学会シンポジウム
    期間 : 2019年05月17日 - 2019年05月17日
    役割 : 司会
    主催者・発行元 : 日本発生学会
  • 脊椎動物の脳の起源と多様化
    期間 : 2017年09月14日 - 2017年09月15日
    役割 : 講師
    主催者・発行元 : 高知大学
    イベント・番組・新聞雑誌名 : 集中講義
  • 脊椎動物の脳の起源と多様化
    期間 : 2015年10月27日 - 2015年10月27日
    役割 : 講師
    主催者・発行元 : 自治医科大学
    イベント・番組・新聞雑誌名 : 集中講義
  • 脊椎動物の脳の発生と進化
    期間 : 2015年09月27日 - 2015年09月29日
    役割 : 講師
    主催者・発行元 : 広島大学
    イベント・番組・新聞雑誌名 : 集中講義
  • 日本発生生物学会シンポジウム
    期間 : 2015年06月05日 - 2015年06月05日
    役割 : 司会
    主催者・発行元 : 日本発生学会
    イベント・番組・新聞雑誌名 : 日本発生生物学会シンポジウム
  • 脊椎動物の脳の起源と進化
    期間 : 2014年10月15日 - 2014年10月16日
    役割 : 講師
    主催者・発行元 : 名古屋大学
    イベント・番組・新聞雑誌名 : 集中講義
  • 日本進化学会シンポジウム
    期間 : 2011年07月 - 2011年07月
    役割 : 司会
    主催者・発行元 : 日本進化学会
    イベント・番組・新聞雑誌名 : 日本進化学会シンポジウム
  • 日本発生生物学会サテライトワークショップ
    期間 : 2008年05月 - 2008年05月
    役割 : 司会
    主催者・発行元 : 日本発生生物学会
    イベント・番組・新聞雑誌名 : 日本発生生物学会サテライトワークショップ

メディア報道

  • NHKスペシャル 生命大躍進 第3集「ついに 知性 が生まれた」
    報道 : 2014年07月
    発行元・放送局 : NHK
    番組・新聞雑誌 : NHKスペシャル
     テレビ・ラジオ番組

愛媛大学教員活動実績

教育活動(B)

担当授業科目(B01)

  • 2019, 前期, 学部, 生物学入門
  • 2019, 前期, 学部, 生物学入門
  • 2019, 前期, 学部, 生物学序論
  • 2019, 前期, 学部, 臨海実習
  • 2019, 前期, 学部, 生物英語
  • 2019, 前期, 学部, 生物学ゼミナールⅠ
  • 2019, 前期, 学部, 生物学特別演習Ⅰ
  • 2019, 前期, 学部, 卒業研究Ⅰ
  • 2019, 前期, 学部, 動物生理学
  • 2019, 前期, 修士, 生物環境科学高等実習Ⅱ
  • 2019, 前期, 修士, 生物学ゼミナールI
  • 2019, 前期, 修士, 生物学課題実験I
  • 2019, 前期, 学部, 動物生理学
  • 2019, 前期, 学部, 臨海実習
  • 2019, 前期, 学部, 生物英語


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